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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

Thesia I. Garner and Kathleen S. Short

Responses to minimum income and minimum spending questions are used to produce economic well-being thresholds. Thresholds are estimated using a regression framework…

Abstract

Responses to minimum income and minimum spending questions are used to produce economic well-being thresholds. Thresholds are estimated using a regression framework. Regression coefficients are based on U.S. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data and then applied to U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) data. Three different resource measures are compared to the estimated thresholds. The first resource measure is total before-tax money income, and the other two are expenditure based. The first of these two refers to expenditure outlays and the second to outlays adjusted for the value of the service flow of owner-occupied housing (rental equivalence). The income comparison is based on SIPP data while the outlays comparisons are based on CE data. Results using official poverty thresholds are shown for comparison. This is among the earliest work in the U.S. in which expenditure outlays have been used for economic well-being determinations in combination with personal assessments, and the first time rental equivalence has been used in such an exercise. Comparisons of expenditures for various bundles of commodities are compared to the CE derived thresholds to provide insight concerning what might be considered minimum or basic.

Results reveal that CE and SIPP MIQ thresholds are higher than MSQ thresholds, and resulting poverty rates are also higher with the MIQ. CE-based MSQ thresholds are not statistically different from average expenditure outlays for food, apparel, and shelter and utilities for primary residences. When reported rental equivalences for primary residences that are owner occupied are substituted for out-of-pocket shelter expenditures, single elderly are less likely to be as badly off as they would be with a strict outlays approach in defining resources.

Details

Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2006

Daniela Mantovani, Fotis Papadopoulos, Holly Sutherland and Panos Tsakloglou

This paper considers the effects on current pensioner incomes of reforms designed to improve the long-term sustainability of public pension systems in the European Union…

Abstract

This paper considers the effects on current pensioner incomes of reforms designed to improve the long-term sustainability of public pension systems in the European Union. We use EUROMOD to simulate a set of common illustrative reforms for four countries selected on the basis of their diverse pension systems and patterns of poverty among the elderly: Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK. The variations in fiscal and distributive effects on the one hand suggest that different paths for reform are necessary in order to achieve common objectives across countries, and on the other provide indications of the appropriate directions for reform in each case.

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Micro-Simulation in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-442-3

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Joachim Merz and Bettina Scherg

A growing polarization of society accompanied by an erosion of the middle class is receiving increasing attention in recent German economic and social policy discussion…

Abstract

A growing polarization of society accompanied by an erosion of the middle class is receiving increasing attention in recent German economic and social policy discussion. Our study contributes to this discussion in two ways: First, on a theoretical level we propose extended multidimensional polarization indices based on a constant elasticity of substitution (CES)-type well-being function and present a new measure to multidimensional polarization, the mean minimum polarization gap, 2DGAP. This polarization intensity measure provides transparency with regard to each single attribute, which is important for targeted policies, while at the same time respecting their interdependent relations. Second, in an empirical application, time is incorporated, in addition to the traditional income measure, as a fundamental resource for any activity. In particular, genuine personal leisure time will account for social participation in the sense of social inclusion/exclusion and Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

Instead of arbitrarily choosing the attribute parameters in the CES well-being function, the interdependent relations of time and income are evaluated by the German population. With the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and detailed time use diary data from the German Time Use Surveys (GTUSs) 1991/1992 and 2001/2002, we quantify available and extended multidimensional polarization measures as well as our new approach to measuring the polarization of the working poor and affluent in Germany.

There are three prominent empirical results: Genuine personal leisure time in addition to income is an important and significant polarization attribute. Compensation is of economic and statistical significance. The new minimum 2DGAP approach reveals that multidimensional polarization increased in the 1990s in Germany.

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2020

Yener Coskun

This paper aims to offer an extensive empirical case study analysis by investigating housing affordability in Turkey as a whole, and in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir over the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer an extensive empirical case study analysis by investigating housing affordability in Turkey as a whole, and in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir over the period of 2006 and 2017 and its sub-periods.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a theoretically informed model to assess affordability using complementary methodologies in quantitative analysis. This study seeks to help outline the nature of the problem in aggregate level and in the cities; it also seeks to offer lessons about how to address measurement and modelling challenges in emergent market contexts by constructing aggregate-/city-level housing cost-to-income (HCI) ratio, adjusted HCI (AHCI) ratio, housing affordability index (HAI) and effective HAI sensitive to multiple calculation methodologies and alternative data set involving income distribution and poverty tranches.

Findings

HCI, AHCI, HAI and EHAI models generally suggest the parallel results: housing is not affordable in Turkey and in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir except for the highest income groups. The evidence implies that besides macroeconomic instabilities, distorted interest rates and short average mortgage maturity, poverty and unequal income/wealth distributions are the main reasons of the Turkish housing affordability crisis specifically heightened in metropolitan areas such as in Istanbul.

Research limitations/implications

The evidence provides an insight on housing affordability problems in Turkey. However, small sample size and short observation period create a limit for generalisation of the findings. Further analysis would be required to illustrate how housing affordability changes in different cities of Turkey in a longer period.

Practical implications

By using empirical approaches, this paper helps to understand how serious housing affordability problems of Turkey in aggregate and urban levels. This evidence helps to explain declining ownership ratio in low-income groups and in urban areas. Reliable explanations on existing housing crisis of Turkey also help to develop affordable housing policies.

Social implications

Declining housing affordability and homeownership ratio may translate as the rising housing inequality and insecurity among Turkish households. Moreover, better affordability values of higher income groups suggest that existing inequality, economic/social segmentation, and hence social tension between high and low income groups, may further increase. In this respect, the authors suggest socially important policies such as reducing income/wealth inequalities and increasing affordable housing supply.

Originality/value

This study offers a detailed empirical case study analysis that can be used as an exemplar of how to overcome data constraints in other evolving housing market contexts. This study sets out an approach overcoming the challenges of measurement. This study also combines existing methodological approaches with the modified variables to provide a more realistic aggregate-/urban-level housing affordability picture. The authors calculated some parts of housing affordability ratio and index series using discretionary income, minimum wage and effective minimum wage to show the variations of different measurement approaches. Some constructed series are also sensitive to income distribution and poverty thresholds. Collectively, this empirical approach, developed by using emerging market data, provides a contribution to the literature.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2009

Oren M. Levin-Waldman

The neoclassical ethos is predicated on a goal of efficiency, which is assumed to be advanced through competitive markets where market-clearing wages are achieved when the…

Abstract

The neoclassical ethos is predicated on a goal of efficiency, which is assumed to be advanced through competitive markets where market-clearing wages are achieved when the demand for labor is exactly equal to the supply of labor. In such a market, there is no such thing as unemployment because wages either rise or fall until the demand for labor is exactly equal to the supply of labor. At the wage at which demand equals supply, all those willing and able to work at that wage will be employed. If more people are willing to work, the wage will fall further, thereby inducing firms to hire more workers, with the result being that the supply of labor once again equals the demand. Conversely, when firms are unable to hire as many workers as they would like, the wage rises to induce additional people to enter into the workforce until supply and demand are once again equal.

Details

Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-397-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Richard B. Freeman

Looks at the role of the minimum in wage setting and how it differsamong countries and over time. Discusses the differing attributes ofminimum wages and their pluses and minuses.

Abstract

Looks at the role of the minimum in wage setting and how it differs among countries and over time. Discusses the differing attributes of minimum wages and their pluses and minuses.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Jean‐Laurent Viviani

Agricultural risks will tend to increase in the future, but risk management instruments and techniques at the disposal of wine companies are relatively limited. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural risks will tend to increase in the future, but risk management instruments and techniques at the disposal of wine companies are relatively limited. This paper aims to present an original risk protection mechanism implemented by the federation of Côte du Rhône (Inter‐Rhône) wine producers to build up a wine stock, or “reserve”, so as to protect their incomes against fluctuation in prices and production.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the VaR (value‐at‐risk) methodology, the stock level that will protect producers against a fall in their incomes is determined. More specifically, the probability that a given producer's current income falls lower than a target minimum income must be inferior or equal to a given (small) wine stock level. An agricultural income depends on price and production, so the reserve amount is expressed according to price and production quantity risk (measured by standard deviation), and the correlation between the two. The wine stock reserve is compared with a reserve invested in financial assets.

Findings

A static comparative analysis is made using simulations of the two types of reserves (wine stock and financial assets) according to the various explanatory variables. Empirical study makes it possible to calculate reserve amounts for each category of wine managed by Inter‐Rhône. The study reveals a strong disparity in the amount of reserves of each wine.

Originality/value

The reserve system is considered by some to give to the producer federation the power to control supply below the equilibrium level in order to receive monopoly rents. To avoid this occurring the constitution of a mutual fund is recommended. This solution allows producers to profit from diversification gains and greater managerial flexibility.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Tindara Addabbo and Massimo Baldini

Poverty dynamics and the ability of the Italian welfare system to reduce poverty are investigated by using the 1991‐1995 panel of the Bank of Italy’s Survey of Household…

Abstract

Poverty dynamics and the ability of the Italian welfare system to reduce poverty are investigated by using the 1991‐1995 panel of the Bank of Italy’s Survey of Household Income and Wealth. Households most exposed to poverty live in the South, have a larger size, a young or female head, with a low educational level or a discontinuous work profile. The dynamic and static effectiveness (in terms of poverty reduction) of social transfers is analysed, as well as the factors affecting exclusion from the safety net. A closer look is taken at the effects of a minimum income guarantee in the experimental phase in Italy.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 21 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Malgorzata Kalbarczyk-Steclik, Rafal Mista and Leszek Morawski

The purpose of this paper is to calculate the subjective equivalence scale and poverty rates for Poland and compare them to equivalence scales in Eastern and Western Europe.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to calculate the subjective equivalence scale and poverty rates for Poland and compare them to equivalence scales in Eastern and Western Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data for 2005-2012. In particular, the authors capture the minimum needs income question and, knowing the minimum needs income of each individual’s observation, apply OLS regression controlling for income and household structure to estimate the poverty threshold, equivalence scales and poverty.

Findings

The subjective equivalence scales for the Euro Zone are constant for the period 2004-2012 and less stable for the CEE countries. The child cost in relation to the cost brought by an additional adult is higher in the CEE countries than in the Euro Zone countries. The subjective poverty rates are lower than the OECD rates. The only exceptions are Latvia, Estonia and Bulgaria.

Originality/value

The authors extend the analysis made by Bishop et al. (2014) by adding data for the years after 2007 and countries outside the Euro Zone.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 January 2005

Victor Thuronyi

Abstract

Details

Taxing the Hard-to-tax: Lessons from Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-828-5

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