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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Warren Chiu, David Thompson, Wai‐ming Mak and K.L. Lo

This paper reviews the literature on training needs analysis with the intention of organising conceptually the various approaches. It offers a way of going beyond simple…

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8751

Abstract

This paper reviews the literature on training needs analysis with the intention of organising conceptually the various approaches. It offers a way of going beyond simple descriptions to a quantitative approach. A simple yet comprehensive model is proposed which consists of four aspects focusing on four related questions: Who are the key initiators of the TNA studies? What are the levels of interest in the studies (i.e. organization, process, group and individual)? What methods of analysis are used? What is the intended outcome of the analysis? Based on these, four hypotheses are proposed. A literature search produced a total of 118 articles, of which 44 were randomly picked for detailed review. As expected, the literature was dominated by “supply‐led” players, i.e. trainers and academics, but with an unexpectedly strong emphasis on the “demand‐led” aspects of the organisation, especially its business results and growth.

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Personnel Review, vol. 28 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Ming Kong, Li Xin, Mengyuan Chen and Haonan Li

Based on role theory, from the perspective of workplace behaviors (proactive behavior, in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior), this paper provides a…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on role theory, from the perspective of workplace behaviors (proactive behavior, in-role behavior and organizational citizenship behavior), this paper provides a perspective of matching process on the importance of fit in personnel selection.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 231 leader–employee dyadic in a two-wave survey, the hypotheses were demonstrated with hierarchical regression analyses.

Findings

The results presented that: (1) Employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit were positively related to employees' workplace behaviors; (2) Employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit increased person-supervisor fit; (3) The influence of the interaction between employees' perceptions of implicit leadership prototype fit and leaders' perceptions of implicit followership prototype fit on employees' workplace behaviors will be mediated, first by person-supervisor fit and then by work engagement.

Originality/value

This study introduces the perspective of matching process that reflects the relative importance of fit in personnel selection. The results also enriched role theory from the perspective of implicit prototype fit, which provides an important basis for managers to effectively use managerial cognition and inspire employees' positive workplace behaviors.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Ming Kong and Yue Yuan

Based on the emerging stream of research in moral psychology and behavioral ethics which shows that accessibility of moral constructs influences ethical decisions…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the emerging stream of research in moral psychology and behavioral ethics which shows that accessibility of moral constructs influences ethical decisions, judgments, and behaviors, perceived deviance tolerance (PDT) is defined as “leaders’ tolerance of deviance perceived by employees.” The purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically test a theoretical model that explains how and why PDT influences employees’ moral psychology and behaviors in interpersonal contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The study takes 298 leaders and 429 employees from 16 large Chinese enterprises as samples.

Findings

Results across two studies provide consistent support for the proposed model and advance our understanding about how employees’ perception of leaders’ deviance tolerance influences their negative and positive behaviors.

Originality/value

Thus, findings of this research contribute to knowledge on the interpersonal effects of cognition in employees’ behaviors and enrich the application of social control theory.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Check Teck Foo

The Romance of the Three Kingdoms (RTK) is probably the most popular classical novel in Chinese literature. Of more than 1,000 characters in this extensive, three‐volume…

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1088

Abstract

Purpose

The Romance of the Three Kingdoms (RTK) is probably the most popular classical novel in Chinese literature. Of more than 1,000 characters in this extensive, three‐volume novel, Kong Ming in RTK is widely seen by the Chinese as the most remarkable strategist. This paper attempts to develop a cognitive schema of Kong Ming on strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper reviews broadly the traditionally, four most popular novels within the Chinese classical literature: The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin, Journey to the West and A Dream of the Red Mansions. After emphasizing the role of the RTK in influencing Chinese strategic thinking, the paper utilizes the methods of textual analyses in research. Focusing on a specific episode of global strategy making and taking (Chapter 38), the methodology is explained.

Findings

From textual analysis, the paper presents as its finding a schematically linear, cognitive structure of the strategy process. It also presents the central role of the “Counselor of Strategy” in Chinese strategy making process. From this research, a Kong Ming‐grounded, cognitive model of strategy process is developed. If the RTK (more than say, any MBA program) continues to influence Chinese strategy processes, then fast strategic decision making (as exemplified in our analyses) may be one of the pivotal reasons for the equally fast rise of the Chinese economy in our global economic landscape.

Originality/value

Kong Ming (or Zhuge Liang) had been hailed by the Chinese with such lofty epithets such as the “Divine Strategist”. His exploits during the declining Han dynasty and emergence of the Three Kingdoms of Wei, Shu and Wu (220‐280 CE) are still cited by the Chinese people in their daily conversations on strategy. In this paper, we draw lessons for CEOs through a Kong Ming‐grounded model for strategy.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Wai Ching Choy

This paper explores how the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSARG) securitizes internal security, cultural identity and welfare system through…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores how the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSARG) securitizes internal security, cultural identity and welfare system through refugee policy instruments. It also aims to explore the roles of members of the Legislative Council (Legco) and Chinese newspapers in the securitization process.

Design/methodology/approach

The author analyzed 6 landmark verdicts, 342 related documents of the Legco, 2,386 news coverages and 408 editorials/ column articles from 6 selected Chinese newspapers from 2005 to mid-2019. While documents of the Legco were collected from the Legco archives, news reports, editorials and column articles were gathered on Wisenews with the keywords, namely, refugees, asylum seekers, torture claims and non-refoulement claims.

Findings

The author argues that the advanced comprehensive security approach helps to comprehend the securitization process in Hong Kong. The HKSARG, Legco members of the pro-government camp and pro-government Chinese newspapers perform as securitizing actors who regard refugees as an existential threat to the referent objects, i.e. internal security, cultural identity and welfare system.

Research limitations/implications

There are two significant limitations, namely, the coverage of newspapers and the absence of poll data. This paper merely selected six Chinese newspapers, which do not cover English newspapers and some other Chinese newspapers in Hong Kong. It may neglect some important data. Additionally, owing to the absence of longitudinal poll data, the author chose not to examine the related materials.

Originality/value

This paper intends to be the first study to provide a longitudinal examination of the transformations of current refugee policies in Hong Kong.

Details

Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1871-2673

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Maxwell Chun Sing Ho and Jiafang Lu

Under-examination of the notion of competition between schools has created a considerable asymmetry between the reality and the literature of schooling. Therefore, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Under-examination of the notion of competition between schools has created a considerable asymmetry between the reality and the literature of schooling. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the validity of school competition and verify the propositions regarding the effects of school marketing practices in literature, particularly Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) and aided schools in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

It tests the relationships between student intake and school academic performance and school marketing practices. It also compares the pattern of the relationships between the DSS and aided secondary schools. Secondary data from 441 secondary schools were retrieved from a popular secondary school admission magazine in Hong Kong and from the schools’ websites.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the school’s academic performance was positively related to discretionary student intake. In addition, marketing school academic performance, but not marketing school features, was positively related to student intake. At last, it was found that marketing school academic performance intensified the relationship between the school’s academic performance and student intake in aided schools but not in DSS schools. The results were interpreted as demonstrating that school competition in Hong Kong is a battle of lifting academic performance.

Originality/value

This study is potential and worthwhile in at least two ways. First, testing the relationships of student intake with academic performance and school marketing practices helps to verify the notion of school competition in the education sector, which, in turn, can bridge the gap between the practice and literature of schooling. Second, examining school competition in Hong Kong can help to identify an important contextual reality for future scholars whose research site is located in Hong Kong.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Yiu Chung Wong and Jason K.H. Chan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the emergence of civil disobedience (CD) movements in Hong Kong in the context of the notion of civil society (CS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the emergence of civil disobedience (CD) movements in Hong Kong in the context of the notion of civil society (CS).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by rigorously defining the notion of CD, as well as the concept of CS and tracing its development in Hong Kong over the past several decades. By using a model of CS typology, which combines the variables of state control and a society’s quest for autonomy (SQA), the paper aims to outline the historical development of CD movements in Hong Kong. It also discusses the recent evolution of CS and its relationship with CD movements, particularly focusing on their development since Leung Chun-ying became the Chief Executive in 2012. Finally, by using five cases of CD witnessed in the past several decades, the relationship between the development of CS and the emergence of CD in Hong Kong has been outlined.

Findings

Four implications can be concluded: first, CD cannot emerge when the state and society are isolated. Second, the level of SC and the scale of CD are positively related. Third, as an historical trend, the development of SQA is generally in linear progress; SQA starts from a low level (e.g. interest-based and welfare-based aims) and moves upwards to campaign for higher goals of civil and political autonomy. If the lower level of SQA is not satisfied, it can lead to larger scale CD in future. Fourth, the CD movement would be largest in scale when the state-society relationship confrontational and when major cleavages can be found within CS itself.

Originality/value

This paper serves to enrich knowledge in the fields of politics and sociology.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Wai Ming Tam, Yin Cheong Cheng and Wing Ming Cheung

Aims to develop a framework that can provide a total conception of home‐school partnership and can be used to re‐engineer the existing superficial and fragmentary practice…

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580

Abstract

Aims to develop a framework that can provide a total conception of home‐school partnership and can be used to re‐engineer the existing superficial and fragmentary practice of home‐school co‐operation in both Hong Kong and international contexts. Argues that, using this framework to re‐engineer the traditional home‐school relationship and achieve total home‐school partnership, the school, family, education authority, as well as the community should each take on new and differentiated roles and should fulfil the functions and expectations as described in the framework. Addresses how the total home‐school partnership can contribute to the effectiveness of school education according to the seven models of school effectiveness: the goal model, the system‐resource model, the process model, the strategic‐constituencies model, the legitimacy model, the organizational learning model and the ineffectiveness model.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

Ming Ming Chiu and Allan Walker

This article aims to instigate a focused dialogue of social justice in Hong Kong schools and of the responsibilities this holds for school leaders.

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1577

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to instigate a focused dialogue of social justice in Hong Kong schools and of the responsibilities this holds for school leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on economic, psychological, and sociological research to illustrate how the unequal allocation of resources and school status hierarchies affects students and challenges leaders' understandings and actions.

Findings

This article identifies several contextual factors prevalent in Hong Kong that maintain inequality and then applies research findings to explain how these discriminate against both disadvantaged and advantaged students. To address social justice issues, school leaders can start by understanding these inequality mechanisms, their own values and beliefs, and those prevalent in their communities. Then, they can introduce structural and cultural changes to reduce inequality.

Originality/value

This article exposes several mechanisms that sustain inequality in Hong Kong schools and suggests how leaders can address them through specific pragmatic actions.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Ka Ming Law, Zhi‐Ming Zhang and Chung‐Sun Leung

Previous researches have considered that the impact of fashion change and fashion consumption is linear. Therefore, one reason was found as the ultimate source to explain…

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22676

Abstract

Previous researches have considered that the impact of fashion change and fashion consumption is linear. Therefore, one reason was found as the ultimate source to explain why a fashion style/ trend was spread to the mass market. However, the existing market is complex and difficult to find out the holistic reason to explain fashion consumption. In this study, the chaotic perspective is taken into account to investigate the relationship between fashion change and fashion consumption. By using the grounded theory method, 33 in‐depth interviews were conducted. A chaotic fashion consumption model is developed from the findings to explain how different fashions are consumed and rejected while fashion changes. It is found that the interaction of being fashionable, perceived fashionability and system participation affects the ultimate decision on fashion consumption. It is also found that a pattern can be traced to forecast the degree of fashion consumption even when the fashion change phenomenon is chaotic. Thus, it is similar to the principle of chaos theory that short‐term prediction is possible in relation to the degree of fashion acceptance among consumers. Marketing implications are suggested with reference to the chaotic fashion consumption model.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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