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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Anna Visvizi and Miltiadis D. Lytras

The purpose of this paper is to rethink the focus of the smart cities debate and to open it to policymaking and strategy considerations. To this end, the origins of what…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to rethink the focus of the smart cities debate and to open it to policymaking and strategy considerations. To this end, the origins of what is termed normative bias in smart cities research are identified and a case made for a holistic, scalable and human-centred smart cities research agenda. Applicable across the micro, mezzo and macro levels of the context in which smart cities develop, this research agenda remains sensitive to the limitations and enablers inherent in these contexts. Policymaking and strategy consideration are incorporated in the agenda this paper advances, thus creating the prospect of bridging the normative and the empirical in smart cities research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper queries the smart cities debate and, by reference to megacities research, argues that the smart city remains an overly normatively laden concept frequently discussed in separation from the broader socio-political and economic contexts in which it is embedded. By focusing on what is termed the normative bias of smart cities research, this paper introduces the nested clusters model. By advocating the inclusion of policymaking and strategy considerations in the smart cities debate, a case is made for a holistic, scalable and human-centred smart cities agenda focused, on the one hand, on individuals and citizens inhabiting smart cities and, on the other hand, on interdependencies that unfold between a given smart city and the context in which it is embedded.

Findings

This paper delineates the research focus and scope of the megacities and smart cities debates respectively. It locates the origins of normative bias inherent in smart cities research and, by making a case for holistic, scalable and human-centred smart cities research, suggests ways of bypassing that bias. It is argued that smart cities research has the potential of contributing to research on megacities (smart megacities and clusters), cities (smart cities) and villages (smart villages). The notions of policymaking and strategy, and ultimately of governance, are brought into the spotlight. Against this backdrop, it is argued that smart cities research needs to be based on real tangible experiences of individuals inhabiting rural and urban space and that it also needs to mirror and feed into policy-design and policymaking processes.

Research limitations/implications

The paper stresses the need to explore the question of how the specific contexts in which cities/urban areas are located influence those cities/urban areas’ growth and development strategies. It also postulates new avenues of inter and multidisciplinary research geared toward building bridges between the normative and the empirical in the smart cities debate. More research is needed to advance these imperatives at the micro, mezzo and macro levels.

Practical implications

By highlighting the connection, relatively under-represented in the literature, between the normative and the empirical in smart cities research, this paper encourages a more structured debate between academia and policymakers focused on the sustainable development of cities/urban areas. In doing so, it also advocates policies and strategies conducive to strengthening individuals’/citizens’ ability to benefit from and contribute to smart cities development, thereby making them sustainable.

Social implications

This paper makes a case for pragmatic and demand-driven smart cities research, i.e. based on the frequently very basic needs of individuals and citizens inhabiting not only urban but also rural areas. It highlights the role of basic infrastructure as the key enabler/inhibitor of information and communication technology-enhanced services. The nested clusters model introduced in this paper suggests that an intimate connection exists between individuals’ well-being, their active civic engagement and smart cities sustainability.

Originality/value

This paper delineates the relationship between megacities and smart cities research. It identifies the sources of what is termed normative bias in smart cities research. To address the implications of that bias, a nested clusters model for smart cities is introduced, i.e. a conceptual framework that allows us to redraw the debate on smart cities and establish a functional connection between the array of normatively laden ideas of what a smart city could be and what is feasible, and under which conditions at the policymaking level.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2020

Anna Visvizi and Miltiadis D. Lytras

The purpose of this paper is to contextualise and examine critically the collection of the papers dealing with the broad and multi-faceted question of risk, threats and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contextualise and examine critically the collection of the papers dealing with the broad and multi-faceted question of risk, threats and challenges governments are exposed to in the 21st century. To this end, the concept of ‘distributed risks and threats’ is introduced to account of challenges spread across the context, in which governments are embedded.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers a critical insight into the content of the issue.

Findings

The key argument that this paper advances is that while the nature of risks, threats and challenges that governments are exposed to today is qualitatively new and their scope unprecedented, a lot of governments’ capacity remains idle, i.e. ready to be deployed to address these risks, threats and challenges.

Research limitations/implications

As a review paper, the points conveyed in this paper sketch and highlight, rather than explore in-depth, the possible and new research avenues that the collection of papers prompts.

Practical implications

This paper highlights that the – developed over the centuries – capacity of the government to act and address risks and threats is incommensurate with the agility of challenges borne in the 21st century.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the concept of ‘distributed risks and threats’ to account of the qualitatively new and hybrid challenges spread across the context, in which governments are embedded. This conceptualization of risks and threats, or challenges, offers a handy way to contextualize the variety of ways in which the government is challenged today.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2017

George Papanastasiou, Athanasios Drigas, Charalabos Skianis and Miltiadis D. Lytras

The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of serious games (SGs) in the area of special educational needs in the last ten years (2007-2017).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of serious games (SGs) in the area of special educational needs in the last ten years (2007-2017).

Design/methodology/approach

SGs indicate positive effects on students with special educational needs and promote a multi-sensory style of learning.

Findings

Research showed that SGs are able to keep K-12 education students with attention, memory and developmental disabilities engaged in classroom facilities scaffolding their learning through increased motivation, independence, autonomy and resultant self-esteem.

Research limitations/implications

Time constraints, cost and availability of appropriate games as well as the small sample of the individuals being investigated are some of the research limitations the paper refers to.

Practical implications

Learning through SGs has educational values that are based on learning concepts intrinsically motivating.

Social implications

Students with attention, memory and developmental disabilities demonstrate characteristics of engagement, creativity, control and communication.

Originality/value

SGs-based learning has proven its value added to students with attention, memory and executive control difficulties as well as mental or developmental disabilities engaging students better than when using traditional methods.

Details

Program, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Kuo-Lun Hsiao, Miltiadis D. Lytras and Chia-Chen Chen

Although location-based augmented reality (AR) games are popular in recent years, the motivation of in-app purchases still needs further investigation. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Although location-based augmented reality (AR) games are popular in recent years, the motivation of in-app purchases still needs further investigation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of the intention to make a purchase in location-based AR games.

Design/methodology/approach

This research develops a conceptual model and hypotheses based on the theory of perceived values and satisfaction to investigate the antecedents. An online questionnaire was developed and distributed on popular websites to collect data, and 662 usable responses were collected from the players of Pokémon Go in Taiwan.

Findings

In total, 22 hypotheses were validated by using partial least squares techniques. Among the antecedents of in-app purchases intention in the model, the perceived value and satisfaction were found to have strong direct effects. The antecedents of the perceived value (flow, design aesthetic, social self-expression and good price) have direct influences on the perceived value of all players. Design aesthetic, reward and the perceived value were found to have a direct impact on all players’ satisfaction. Moreover, the differences between paying users and non-paying users were discussed and verified.

Originality/value

The model demonstrated relatively good explanatory power for purchase intention in the context of location-based AR game. The proposed model can provide insights to location-based AR game developers to design their games and marketing strategies.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Ernesto D’Avanzo, Giovanni Pilato and Miltiadis Lytras

An ever-growing body of knowledge demonstrates the correlation among real-world phenomena and search query data issued on Google, as showed in the literature survey…

Abstract

Purpose

An ever-growing body of knowledge demonstrates the correlation among real-world phenomena and search query data issued on Google, as showed in the literature survey introduced in the following. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a pipeline, implemented as a web service, which, starting with recent Google Trends, allows a decision maker to monitor Twitter’s sentiment regarding these trends, enabling users to choose geographic areas for their monitors. In addition to the positive/negative sentiments about Google Trends, the pipeline offers the ability to view, on the same dashboard, the emotions that Google Trends triggers in the Twitter population. Such a set of tools, allows, as a whole, monitoring real-time on Twitter the feelings about Google Trends that would otherwise only fall into search statistics, even if useful. As a whole, the pipeline has no claim of prediction over the trends it tracks. Instead, it aims to provide a user with guidance about Google Trends, which, as the scientific literature demonstrates, is related to many real-world phenomena (e.g. epidemiology, economy, political science).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed experimental framework allows the integration of Google search query data and Twitter social data. As new trends emerge in Google searches, the pipeline interrogates Twitter to track, also geographically, the feelings and emotions of Twitter users about new trends. The core of the pipeline is represented by a sentiment analysis framework that make use of a Bayesian machine learning device exploiting deep natural language processing modules to assign emotions and sentiment orientations to a collection of tweets geolocalized on the microblogging platform. The pipeline is accessible as a web service for any user authorized with credentials.

Findings

The employment of the pipeline for three different monitoring task (i.e. consumer electronics, healthcare, and politics) shows the plausibility of the proposed approach in order to measure social media sentiments and emotions concerning the trends emerged on Google searches.

Originality/value

The proposed approach aims to bridge the gap among Google search query data and sentiments that emerge on Twitter about these trends.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Yenny Villuendas-Rey, Carmen Rey-Benguría, Miltiadis Lytras, Cornelio Yáñez-Márquez and Oscar Camacho-Nieto

The purpose of this paper is to improve the classification of families having children with affective-behavioral maladies, and thus giving the families a suitable orientation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the classification of families having children with affective-behavioral maladies, and thus giving the families a suitable orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed methodology includes three steps. Step 1 addresses initial data preprocessing, by noise filtering or data condensation. Step 2 performs a multiple feature sets selection, by using genetic algorithms and rough sets. Finally, Step 3 merges the candidate solutions and obtains the selected features and instances.

Findings

The new proposal show very good results on the family data (with 100 percent of correct classifications). It also obtained accurate results over a variety of repository data sets. The proposed approach is suitable for dealing with non-symmetric similarity functions, as well as with high-dimensionality mixed and incomplete data.

Originality/value

Previous work in the state of the art only considers instance selection to preprocess the schools for children with affective-behavioral maladies data. This paper explores using a new combined instance and feature selection technique to select relevant instances and features, leading to better classification, and to a simplification of the data.

Details

Program, vol. 51 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Anna Visvizi and Miltiadis Lytras

Abstract

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Abstract

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Anna Visvizi, Colette Mazzucelli and Miltiadis Lytras

The purpose of this study is to navigate the challenges irregular migratory flows generate for cities and urban systems. The migration and refugee crises that challenged…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to navigate the challenges irregular migratory flows generate for cities and urban systems. The migration and refugee crises that challenged Europe in 2015-2016 revealed that the developed world cities and urban areas are largely unprepared to address challenges that irregular migratory flows generate. This paper queries the smart and resilient cities’ debates, respectively, to highlight that migration-related challenges and opportunities have not been explicitly addressed in those deliberations. This creates a disconnect between what these debates promise and what cities/urban systems increasingly need to address on a daily basis. Subsequently, a way of bridging that disconnect is proposed and its policy-making implications discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

To suggest ways of navigating irregular migration-inflicted challenges cities/urban areas face, a nexus between the smart cities and resilient cities’ debates is established. By placing advanced sophisticated information and communication technologies (ICTs) at the heart of the analysis, a novel dynamic ICTs’ enabled integrated framework for resilient urban systems is developed. The framework’s dynamics is defined by two hierarchically interconnected levers, i.e. that of ICTs and that of policy-design and policy-making. Drawing from qualitative analysis and process tracing, the cross-section of policy design and policy-making geared towards the most efficient and ethically sensitive use of sophisticated ICTs is queried. Subsequently, options available to cities/urban systems are discussed.

Findings

The ICTs’ enabled integrated framework for resilient urban systems integrates the effectiveness of migrants and refugees’ policy design and policy-making in human-centred thinking, planning and policy-design for resilient urban systems. It places resilient approaches in the spotlight of research and policy-making, naming them the most effective methods for promoting a humanistic smart cities and resilient urban systems vision. It highlights critical junctions that urban systems’ stakeholders must consider if the promise of emerging sophisticated ICTs is to be employed effectively for the entire society, including its most vulnerable members.

Research limitations/implications

First, when designing ICTs’ enabled integrated resilient urban systems, the key stakeholders involved in the policy-design and policy-making process, including local, national and regional authorities, must employ a holistic view to the urban systems seen through the lens of hard and soft concerns as well as considerations expressed by the receiving and incoming populations. Second, the third-sector representatives, including non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other actors, need to be seen as peers in integrated humanistic networks, thereby contributing critical, unbiased knowledge flows to infrastructures, which promote fair and inclusive participation of migrants and refugees in local economies.

Practical implications

The ICTs’ enabled integrated framework for resilient urban systems promotes a humanistic smart cities’ and resilient urban systems’ vision. It suggests how to design and implement policies apt to meet the needs of both receiving and incoming populations along value chains specific to smart and resilient cities. It promotes emerging sophisticated ICTs as the subtle, yet key, enabler of data ecosystems and customized services capable of responding to critical societal needs of the receiving and the incoming populations. In addition, the framework suggests options, alternatives and strategies for urban systems’ stakeholders, including the authorities, businesses, NGOs, inhabitants and ICTs’ providers and vendors.

Originality/value

The value added of this paper is three-fold. At the conceptual level, by bringing together the smart cities and resilient cities debates, and incorporating sophisticated ICTs in the analysis, it makes a case for their usefulness for cities/urban areas in light of challenges these cities/urban areas confront each day. At the empirical level, this analysis maps the key challenges that cities and their stakeholders face in context of migratory flows and highlights their dual nature. At the policy-making level, this study makes a case for a sound set of policies and actions that boost effective use of ICTs beyond the smart technology hype.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Anna Visvizi, Miltiadis Lytras and Ernesto Damiani

Abstract

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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