Search results

1 – 10 of over 9000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Oriol Sabaté

The substantial resources devoted to warfare in modern times might explain the increasing relevance that military spending has acquired in social sciences. In this regard…

Abstract

The substantial resources devoted to warfare in modern times might explain the increasing relevance that military spending has acquired in social sciences. In this regard, the so-called defence economics has extensively studied the main determinants of military spending and its main consequences in terms of economic performance and institutional transformations. However, one of the main problems for comparative analysis on the causes and effects of military spending is the lack of long-term homogeneous and comparable data in international panel datasets. This paper contributes to fill in this gap by providing new military spending data on Spain from 1850 to 2009 based on NATO methodological criterion. It provides total military spending estimates as well as economic and administrative disaggregated figures for most of the period. These data allow reliable international comparisons while also providing new quantitative evidence to better understand the military history of Spain in modern times.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2010

Aditya Agrawal and Keiran Sharpe

Purpose – This chapter aims to contribute to the policy debate on private sector involvement in traditionally core defence activities through rigorous economic analysis…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims to contribute to the policy debate on private sector involvement in traditionally core defence activities through rigorous economic analysis. Punishment and correction in the US military prisons have traditionally been considered as a core activity that has been governed, regulated and managed by the military service personnel. It has been shown however, that military facilities such as stockades and brigs have often failed to meet their correctional objectives – a quality issue.

Methodology – The chapter constructs a case study to illustrate the method of analysis. Well-trained and motivated military custodial personnel play an important correctional role but are not available in sufficient numbers in military prisons. It is therefore proposed to source these services through the private sector. Specifically, the chapter proposes that private sector providers should provide custodial personnel for stockades and brigs. Traditionally the private sector has been employed to reduce costs, rather than improve quality. This chapter adapts and applies the framework developed by Hart, Shleifer and Vishny (1997) to study the governance model and incentive regime that could enable the use of the private sector, reduce the risk of excessive cost cutting and enable quality outcomes to be achieved.

Findings – This chapter argues that private sector involvement could effectively increase the contestability of supply.

Implications – The chapter demonstrates the scope for private sector involvement to increase quality, rather than just decrease costs. It follows that the private sector can contribute to core national security outcomes. However, this implication needs significantly more exploration for specific contexts.

Value – The adopted mode of analysis provides a template for rigorous analysis of similar proposals in the future.

Details

Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal, and Political Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-004-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Anna Verey and Peter K. Smith

Research into the difficulties of post‐combat service personnel adjusting to civilian society has largely focussed on quantifiable symptoms including post combat stress…

Abstract

Purpose

Research into the difficulties of post‐combat service personnel adjusting to civilian society has largely focussed on quantifiable symptoms including post combat stress disorder. This paper aims to present qualitative data on experiences of military personnel who have served in combat, concentrating on how events in combat impacted on their subsequent transition back to the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors asked participants to focus on stressful experiences in combat and their ensuing experiences of work, family relationships, civilian society and emotional health. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with 15 military personnel who had returned from active combat. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

Six major themes were found: the importance of being part of a group – this provided collective identity, as well as providing a context for legalised violent behaviour; shared experience – personnel prefer to seek support from individuals with similar experiences; help‐seeking – personnel prefer to seek help from friends as opposed to professionals; professionalism and emotional processing – the “macho” approaches in the military may prevent real help‐seeking and emotional disclosure; relationships and family – there were adjustments to be made in regard to personal relationships; civilian society – participants found civilian society to be lacking in real challenge and some engaged in risk‐taking behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by the small sample, mainly with commissioned officers.

Practical implications

It would be of benefit to service personnel if those in helping professions who are working with them, also had experience of combat. Pre‐combat training and post‐combat debriefing may assist smoother transitions. Family counselling may be of benefit for personnel and their families.

Originality/value

The research provides new and important insights into the difficulties facing personnel returning from stressful combat situations, and how they may best be helped.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 August 1996

Bjorn Bloching and Matthias Busse

Abstract

Details

The Peace Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-482-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2020

Jill Manthorpe and Stephanie Bramley

This purpose of this paper is to review evidence about the barriers and facilitators to ex-service personnel obtaining employment within social care roles. Social care has…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this paper is to review evidence about the barriers and facilitators to ex-service personnel obtaining employment within social care roles. Social care has long-standing, well-recognised problems of staff recruitment and retention. Policymakers and employers are exploring if there are untapped sources of potential employees. Some ex-service personnel may be interested in exploring a move to social care work with older people but may face barriers to such a move which may need to be addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

Databases and grey literature were searched systematically to provide an overview of evidence on this topic. In total, 23 articles were included in the review.

Findings

A narrative analysis revealed barriers to ex-service personnel obtaining employment within social care not only related to their previous occupation, health status and identity but also facilitators related to the sector’s severe recruitment challenges and the transferable skills of ex-service personnel. Evidence suggests that learning from health services may be highly relevant and transferable.

Research limitations/implications

This review was confined to English language studies published between 2008 and 2018. Few mentioned specific user or client groups.

Originality/value

This review identified evidence suggesting that learning from health services may be highly relevant and transferable to the social care sector so as to facilitate the transition of more ex-service personnel into social care work with older people.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Institutional structures of professional career paths often support breadwinner–homemaker families, with a stay at home wife available full time to support the professional (and children), so the professional can devote complete energy and time to developing a career. This research examines how two partners in the same narrowly structured, fast track occupational culture such as those occurring for dual military officer couples shape how women and men negotiate decision making and life events. Data from interviews with 23 dual U.S. Navy officer couples build upon Becker and Moen’s (1999) scaling back notions. With both spouses in these careers, placing limits on work is extremely difficult due to fast track cultures that demand higher status choices and structures that formally do not reliably consider collocations. Trading off occurs, but with distress due to the unique demands on two partners in the fast track culture, which means career death for some. Two partners in fast track careers may not yet have given up on two careers as many peers may have, but they lose a great deal, including time together and their desired number of children. But they ultimately posit individual choice rather than focusing on structural change. The pressured family life resulting is likely similar to that for partners in other narrowly structured, fast track cultures such as in law firms and academia.

Details

Visions of the 21st Century Family: Transforming Structures and Identities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-028-4

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Jaideep Roy and Prabal Roy Chowdhury

In a global environment where terrorist organisations based in a poor country target a rich nation, this paper aims to study the properties of a dynamically incentive…

Abstract

Purpose

In a global environment where terrorist organisations based in a poor country target a rich nation, this paper aims to study the properties of a dynamically incentive compatible contract designed by the target nation that involves joint counter-terror tasks with costly participation by each country. The counter-terror operations are however subject to ex post moral hazard, so that to incentivise counter-terror, the rich country supplies developmental aid. Development aid also helps avoid unrest arising from counter-terror activities in the target nation. However, aid itself can be diverted to non-developmental projects, generating a novel interlinked moral hazard problem spanning both tasks and rewards.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a dynamic model where the aid giving countries and aid receiving countries behave strategically. Then they solve for the sub game perfect Nash equilibrium of this game.

Findings

The authors characterise the optimal contract, showing that the dynamic structure of counter-terror resembles the shock-and-awe discussed by military strategists. The authors then prove that it is not necessarily the case that a more hawkish (resp. altruistic) donor is less pro-development (resp. softer on terror). In addition, the authors show that it may be easier to contract for higher counter-terror inputs when the recipient is more sympathetic to terrorists. The authors also discuss other problems faced by developing nations where this model can be readily adopted and the results can endorse appealing policy implications.

Originality/value

The authors characterise the optimal contract, showing that the dynamic structure of counter-terror resembles the shock-and-awe discussed by military strategists. It is proved that it is not necessarily the case that a more hawkish (resp. altruistic) donor is less pro-development (resp. softer on terror). In addition, the authors show that it may be easier to contract for higher counter-terror inputs when the recipient is more sympathetic to terrorists. Other problems faced by developing nations are also discussed where this model can be readily adopted, and the results can endorse appealing policy implications. These results have important policy implications, in particular in today’s world.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Keston Lindsay, Michelle Ferrer, Ronald Davis and David Nichols

Advances in military medical care have facilitated a reduction of fatalities in the global war on terror, relative to previous conflicts. The physical and psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

Advances in military medical care have facilitated a reduction of fatalities in the global war on terror, relative to previous conflicts. The physical and psychological trauma of returning personnel remain a challenge, and poor physical and psychological health have been shown to affect quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this paper is to validate the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire amongst wounded, injured and ill military personnel, and to determine the characteristics of distinct groups found in this sample.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 52 male and female military personnel (34.69+7.63 years, n=51) completed 24 items of the WHOQOL-BREF. Principal component analysis using the direct oblimin rotation was used to determine the factor structure of the WHOQOL-BREF and k-means cluster analysis was used to determine QOL characteristics of the separate groups.

Findings

The WHOQOL-BREF is a reliable tool for measuring QOL for American military personnel. However, the psychometric structure of the WHOQOL-BREF in this sample differed from the original domains. The first cluster analysis based on the original domains produced two clusters: a group of 12 that had poor QOL, and a group of 40 that had relatively good QOL except for the physical domain. The second cluster analysis differed in independence and access/social support only.

Research limitations/implications

Although the sample was small for principal component analysis, the investigators chose to proceed with this procedure, because objective indicators such as measures of sampling adequacy and communalities met or exceeded acceptable thresholds.

Originality/value

Rehabilitation programs for military ill, injured and wounded should contain components that promote independence and self-actualization.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Karen Landay and Rachel E. Frieder

Stress and the military go hand-in-hand, particularly in combat environments. While some personality traits or types weaken relationships between stress and performance…

Abstract

Stress and the military go hand-in-hand, particularly in combat environments. While some personality traits or types weaken relationships between stress and performance, others, such as psychopathy, may strengthen them. In the present chapter, we consider the ramifications of individuals with high levels of psychopathy or psychopathic tendencies in the military with regard to both their own stress and performance and that of those around them. We discuss different reactions to psychological and physical stress, as well as the implications of psychopathic tendencies as they relate to current military issues, including gender, leadership, teamwork, turnover, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide. By juxtaposing relevant research findings on stress and psychopathy, we conclude that psychopathic tendencies should have neither uniformly negative nor positive effects on stress and performance in the military. Rather, effects on such individuals and the peripheral others with whom they interact will likely vary greatly depending on numerous factors.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Michael D. Anestis, Samantha E. Daruwala and Neil Carey

Firearms account for the majority of suicide deaths in the US military and general population. The percentage of suicides resulting from firearms is higher in the military

Abstract

Purpose

Firearms account for the majority of suicide deaths in the US military and general population. The percentage of suicides resulting from firearms is higher in the military, however, and as such, the ratio of non-lethal to lethal suicide attempts is lower in the military than in the general population. In 2013, Congress passed the National Defense Authorization Act, which facilitated a Department of Defense (DoD) shift toward allowing commanding officers and clinicians to inquire about personal firearms with service members perceived as being at risk and also began giving free cable locks to firearm-owning military personnel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary understanding of the effectiveness of this change, the authors examined trends in firearm suicide attempts within the US military and general population from 2010 to 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on non-lethal and lethal suicide attempts overall and within specific methods were extracted from the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (2011–2015).

Findings

Contrary to expectations, firearms were not utilized in a smaller proportion of suicide attempts within the military post-law change. Consistent with expectations, however, the ratio of non-lethal to lethal suicide attempts increased, particularly after the change in law, with the ratio in the military converging somewhat with that of the general population.

Originality/value

Overall, results were mixed, with only limited and tangential evidence that the change in law has proven effective. More precise data collection will be required in order to fully evaluate such laws.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 9000