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Although previous research has highlighted the importance of innovative intermediary services that are delivered through cluster initiatives to foster own attractiveness…
Although previous research has highlighted the importance of innovative intermediary services that are delivered through cluster initiatives to foster own attractiveness and the development of business, little emphasis has been placed on examining the patterns and influencers of such a change in new organisational forms from a management perspective. The present study investigates the change patterns of core intermediary activities in cluster initiatives as well as the influence of various stakeholders on change in those core activities.
The empirical data of this work illustrates the general picture of change within new organisational forms and therefore emerges from a survey study carried out among numerous European cluster initiatives originating from different industries. The main propositions for testing have roots in and are discussed through the prism of Stakeholder Theory as well as entrepreneurship, change and intermediary (middle-hands, brokerage) literature.
The findings reveal that intermediary activities are under continuous change, and the changes appreciated by the initiative members tend to gradually increase in intensity over time. Internal stakeholders are actively engaged in the change process activities, and external stakeholders are too, but to a limited extent. This leaves space for creativity and action for the initiatives.
This research combines stakeholder theory and literature on intermediation (new forms of organisations), change, and entrepreneurship. The outcome of the study might serve as a ground for theoretical classification of cluster initiatives as a particular type of intermediary in accordance with their specific occupation. This would add to the ongoing discussion on definition and typologies of intermediaries as well as lift the awareness on the peculiar constellation of stakeholders within these innovative organisations – their engagement expectations and level of involvement.
Knowledge on which stakeholders can turn to in the event that a special service is needed can shorten implementation times and improve the quality of services. This knowledge is a way to choose suitable and influential networking partners who can assist by pushing existing working mechanisms in a favourable direction.
The study illustrates the patterns behind changes of intermediary activities/services over time, which would form solid ground for developing new methods to assist in achieving stakeholder satisfaction through cluster-initiative services. Therefore, this work can serve as a benchmarking example for traditional organisations that find themselves in “sleeping” mode or that aim for revitalization.
The contribution of change and engagement mechanisms to effectivization and innovativeness of organisations are highlighted as main value added of this research.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a positive and functional attributional model of leadership, using both leadership perceptions and leadership effectiveness as…
The purpose of this paper is to develop a positive and functional attributional model of leadership, using both leadership perceptions and leadership effectiveness as criteria. Drawing from cognitive complexity theory, and attributional complexity theory, this article identifies attributional accuracy of managers as the fundamental component of the functional model developed here. The model of leadership developed here focuses on such key leadership constructs as leader information processing using complex schemata, leader attributions and their accuracy, leader behaviors that follow their attributions, mediating variables such as subordinate self‐efficacy, satisfaction, and motivation, and outcome variables such as leadership perceptions and subordinate performance. These variables are linked in a process model.
The article depends on a critical review of the literature to build a theoretical model consistent with theory building guidelines.
Accurate attributions and the avoidance of attributional biases are identified as key factors determining effectiveness and leadership perceptions. Leader interactive behaviors, feedback latency, and the development of strategies for improving performance are identified as key consequences of attributional accuracy.
This article has implications for the ways in which managers are selected and trained to provide leadership in organizations.
The theory developed here breaks new ground in the investigation of the positive and functional attributional processes of leaders leading to organizational or unit effectiveness. This research contributes to knowledge by pointing to the functional role of accurate attributions and the delineation of the processes through which such attributions can lead to enhancing subordinate motivation and hence leadership effectiveness.