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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Jonna Koponen, Saara Julkunen, Mika Gabrielsson and Ellen Bolman Pullins

The purpose of this paper is to explore how business-to-business (B2B), intercultural, interpersonal salesperson–customer relationships develop using the lens of identity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how business-to-business (B2B), intercultural, interpersonal salesperson–customer relationships develop using the lens of identity management theory (IMT; Imahori and Cupach, 2005).

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses qualitative semi-structured interviews on 18 targeted relationships with customers from another culture conducted with business-to-business salespeople.

Findings

The findings indicate that our respondents' relationships moved from trial toward enmeshment and on occasion toward the renegotiation phase, as described in IMT. In the case of low cultural diversity between salesperson and customer, the relationships reached the trial and enmeshment phase. In the case of high cultural diversity between salesperson and customer, the relationships on occasion evolved toward the renegotiation phase. Salespeople's cultural intelligence (CQ) facilitates the development of interpersonal, intercultural salesperson–customer relationships.

Originality/value

The authors transfer IMT from the personal relationship development arena to B2B intercultural, interpersonal relationships, address a gap in the literature in the understanding of salesperson–customer interpersonal relationships in different contexts and develop a theoretical model to understand intercultural, interpersonal salesperson–customer relationship development across different levels of cultural diversity.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Peter Gabrielsson, Mika Gabrielsson, John Darling and Reijo Luostarinen

A highly interesting research problem relates to how international information and communication technology (ICT) manufacturers from small and open economies (SMOPECs) can…

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14043

Abstract

Purpose

A highly interesting research problem relates to how international information and communication technology (ICT) manufacturers from small and open economies (SMOPECs) can meet the huge globalization challenge of developing products and managing them during global expansion. In particular, how do product strategies change when these companies move from international to global and why?

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical framework and propositions are constructed, which are then examined in a multiple case study of Finnish ICT manufacturers.

Findings

The results confirm that the globalizing internationals, i.e. companies that first internationalize after the domestic period and then globalize their operations outside the domestic continent, develop towards standardized product strategy alternatives, wider product assortment and advanced product categories.

Research limitations/implications

This study contribute by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of the explanatory factors on global product strategies and their development of globalizing internationals in the Finnish ICT equipment manufacturing field. Also, the study results are expected to be most relevant for companies originating from SMOPEC countries.

Practical implications

This study describes in detail the product strategy dimensions and standardization alternatives for globalizing international ICT companies and impacting factors for managers to consider when planning their global expansion and product strategies.

Originality/value

Little research has been done on the evolution from the international to the global stage. This research is in fact among the first studies studying globalizing internationals and their products strategies. An understanding of the evolution of products strategies and the reasons for this development will contribute to the international marketing field.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Laura Ilonen, Jody Wren, Mika Gabrielsson and Markku Salimäki

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the different roles and implications of a manufacturer's branded retail operations on its international strategy. The roles are…

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4928

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the different roles and implications of a manufacturer's branded retail operations on its international strategy. The roles are analyzed through two dimensions, brand strength and the role of branded retail as a sales channel.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study approach is used to look at the international development of branded retail in four companies, LEGO, Nokia, Iittala and H & M.

Findings

This study finds that there are at least two approaches to implementing branded retail strategy internationally that can be and often are overlapping. Emphasis on branding appears to be important in both approaches. However, the role of the branded retail as a direct sales channel differs between the case companies. The paper discusses and demonstrates the importance and role of branded retail for companies not generally seen as retailers, from both sales and brand management perspectives.

Originality/value

The paper contributes by narrowing the evident research gap regarding this current and seemingly global phenomenon.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Mika Gabrielsson, Viveca Sasi and John Darling

During the past decade, several studies have explored the characteristics of Born International and Born Global business firms, and the reasons for their increase in size…

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12924

Abstract

During the past decade, several studies have explored the characteristics of Born International and Born Global business firms, and the reasons for their increase in size and numbers. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of financing strategies and the commensurate finance management capabilities on the globalization of Finnish Born International and Born Global small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). The resulting knowledge from this study should prove valuable for academic researchers, political decision‐makers and business managers. Interestingly, the results of the study show that Born Globals had greater access to superior financial resources and stronger finance‐related managerial resources right from the start‐up phase than did Born Internationals. An interesting finding also focused on the fact that Born Globals were able to more quickly obtain global management‐related skills and industry‐specific business experience through the use of external business partners and venture capital representatives. These findings may partially explain the Born Globals' rapid expansion into world markets in comparison to Born Internationals, and also the failures of other types of enterprises in these same markets.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Mika Gabrielsson, John Darling and Hannu Seristö

In a world‐wide environment strongly influenced by the issues and perspectives of globalization, internationally‐based business firms must be focused on transformational…

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5080

Abstract

Purpose

In a world‐wide environment strongly influenced by the issues and perspectives of globalization, internationally‐based business firms must be focused on transformational leadership team‐building across the cultural boundaries with which they are involved. The purpose of this paper is to juxtapose the leadership dimensions and national culture dimensions, and particularly to explore one aspect of that transformational leadership team‐building process, the application of the key paradigm of leadership style balance and support within the parameters of an operational team.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review the paper identifies four basic leadership styles, the strengths and weaknesses of each of the styles are identified, communication preferences are discussed, primary back‐up styles that come into focus due to high levels of stress are analyzed, and the all‐important skill of style flex is described. These dimensions will be examined in association with the case of UnitedTel Ltd (a pseudonym), and also include observations relating to the authors' experiences in several other arenas that have been encountered in management and consulting activities.

Findings

Two interactive dimensions at the heart of a leader's behavior – assertiveness and responsiveness – are foundations of that person's leadership style. The basic interactive dimensions of assertiveness and responsiveness thereby form the two axes of the framework of the leadership styles paradigm and the four primary quadrants, which represent the four leadership styles – analyzer, director, creator, and connector.

Research limitations/implications

The paradigm of leadership styles can be a valuable tool for the further research, and understanding of, the process of transformational teambuilding across cultural boundaries.

Practical implications

Importantly, it is not enough just to understand one's leadership style or the style of others in a leadership team; one must also exercise style flex that can enable the parties to function in a mutually‐beneficial situation congruent with the needs of the individuals and the organization.

Originality/value

The leadership styles paradigm can be a very important reference point in the process of transformational teambuilding across cultural boundaries. An interesting view and contribution of the paper are the way that the leadership styles and cultural dimensions can be linked.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

John Darling, Mika Gabrielsson and Hannu Seristö

The contemporary business arena continues to hold great promise for dramatic innovational developments unheard of in previous eras. The purpose of this paper is to suggest…

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9488

Abstract

Purpose

The contemporary business arena continues to hold great promise for dramatic innovational developments unheard of in previous eras. The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways to achieve organizational excellence through entrepreneurship in today's dynamic environment of opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' research has focused on the foundation of successful entrepreneurial management leadership in the achievement of organizational excellence. Data were collected primarily from well‐known entrepreneurs identified during the past ten years in various publications.

Findings

Research shows that the major reflections of operational excellence in organizational entrepreneurship revolve around the care of customers, constant innovation, committed people and managerial leadership.

Research limitations/implications

Many relatively creative ideas regarding entrepreneurial management and leadership have been put forward in this treatise, which clearly require further validation by future research.

Practical implications

Successful leadership has been found to be based upon four key strategies: attention through vision, meaning through communication, trust through positioning, and confidence through respect. Research further suggests that at the heart of successful leadership strategies rest a concern for people and the interpersonal values of joy, hope, charity and peace. These values provide a new paradigm of interactive cues and a foundational core for the successful fulfillment of those key strategies.

Originality/value

This research contributes by developing a model of keys to organizational excellence, and leadership strategies and values. Furthermore, this paper may benefit companies that are trying to reinvent themselves by fostering innovativeness within their organizations.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Mika Gabrielsson, Hannu Seristö and John Darling

Because of globalization, an increased focus on more effective team‐building has become a greater priority. The purpose of this paper is to suggest and describe a new…

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4535

Abstract

Purpose

Because of globalization, an increased focus on more effective team‐building has become a greater priority. The purpose of this paper is to suggest and describe a new paradigm of key leadership perspectives that is of major importance and value to this effort.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on extensive research by the authors regarding the leadership perspectives global managers consider to be of major importance in the team‐building that has helped them achieve success.

Findings

The key leadership perspectives are: paradoxical thinking that nurtures understanding based upon use of both hemispheres of the brain; controlled reflecting that fosters reactions based on internal self‐talk rather than external events; intentional focusing that facilitates the ability to be centered on expected outcomes; instinctive responding that cultivates the ability to recognize and use intuitive impulses; inclusive behaving that nurtures actions based upon a concern for the whole; purposeful trusting that places confidence in events and processes that accompany change; and relational being that fosters strength by maintaining positive interactions with others.

Research limitations/implications

This new paradigm will contribute to science within the field of global strategic management by filling the gap of developing a global leadership model.

Practical implications

Firms must find new and creative ways, such as the proposed new management leadership team‐development paradigm, to interact with, motivate and mentor management teams to achieve the desired levels of global operations.

Originality/value

In this paper, a new array of leadership perspectives is presented that can appreciably impact the effectiveness of management and team‐building in a globally‐based organization.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Olli Kuivalainen, Sanna Sundqvist, Sami Saarenketo and Rod McNaughton

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and…

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9352

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) should be conducted.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive overview of concepts and a conceptual framework to study internationalization patterns of SMEs is offered.

Findings

The complexities of existing definitions and methodologies for researching internationalization patterns are highlighted, and a synthesis of the issues is provided. An integrative model of internationalization pathways, and their antecedents and outcomes is presented.

Research limitations/implications

It is recommended that future research focuses especially on the time dimension of internationalization patterns. Future research can contribute to the literature by adopting a longitudinal approach with larger samples and more detailed cases to capture the dynamics of internationalization.

Practical implications

Practitioners might map their positions, and look for challenges and opportunities with regard to their chosen internationalization pattern. They can also benchmark other firms’ pathways and fine‐tune their own approach to internationalization.

Originality/value

The paper integrates a large body of research in an important research area in international marketing. It also provides guidance on how to conduct future research in the area, and introduces the content of this special issue of the International Marketing Review.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 October 2008

Downloads
448

Abstract

Details

European Business Review, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

The purpose of this paper is to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

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2056

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

When LEGO, one of the world's largest toy manufacturers, decided it needed an outlet where it could show the whole brand experience and use it as a marketing platform, it launched its own brand stores. The company wanted to control its own destiny because the growing consolidation in retail in some markets (especially in the US) and resulting disappearance of small toy stores was putting pressure on the brand. Since giant retailers are increasingly in control of the selling situation and the way the brand is presented, LEGO wanted to gain direct relationships with the people using the company's products to learn more about them, their wants and needs.

Practical implications

Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy‐to‐digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

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