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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Mariela Rendón Belmonte, Miguel Martínez Madrid, José Trinidad Pérez-Quiroz, Benjamín Valdez Salas, Erick A. Juarez-Arellano and Miguel Schorr

The purpose of this paper was to characterize the surface of steel reinforcement of concrete under cathodic protection (CP), submerged in seawater, to understand the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to characterize the surface of steel reinforcement of concrete under cathodic protection (CP), submerged in seawater, to understand the surface changes due to the application of CP and their consequences on cathodic current requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

Reinforced concrete specimens with applied CP were immersed in natural seawater. The experimental methodology included monitoring of corrosion potential (Ecorr); measurement of galvanic current (Igalv), protection potential (Eprotection) and the depolarization potential of steel during the time of exposure; and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The chemical composition of the steel surface was assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD).

Findings

The application of CP leads to the formation of a deposit on the steel surface that according to XRD results, Pourbaix diagram and physical characteristics, is a protective oxide: magnetite (Fe3O4). This oxide causes a decrease in the corrosion rate and requires application of the protection current. It was found that the surface remained protected even after eight days when the CP system was interrupted.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to carry out analysis of the chemical composition of deposits formed on the steel surface, perhaps using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Mössbauer, to verify the presence of the magnetite.

Practical implications

Determination of the main cause of the decrease in current required for protection and deposit formation conditions will enable the design of a CP system to be optimized and economized. At present, the CP design considers only a constant current value for the duration of the protection time.

Originality/value

CP is a technique that has proven effective for the protection of metal structures. However, little attention has been devoted to the surface changes that occur under applied CP and their impact on the electrochemical behavior of the system. This paper describes the phenomena produced at the metal surface and determines kinetic parameters and their consequences on the CP behavior.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Mariela Rendón Belmonte, José Trinidad Pérez Quiroz, Benjamín Valdez Salas, Miguel Martínez Madrid, Andrés Torres Acosta, Jesús Porcayo Calderón and Miguel Schorr Wiener

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the surface of steel under cathodic protection while submerged in seawater, to understand the mechanism that controls the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the surface of steel under cathodic protection while submerged in seawater, to understand the mechanism that controls the operation of the protection system.

Design/methodology/approach

Steel rods were immersed in seawater and NaCl solution with applied cathodic protection. The experimental methodology included monitoring of corrosion potential (Ecorr), galvanic current (Igalv) protection potential (Eprotection) and the depolarization potential of steel during the time of exposure. In addition, the chemical composition of the steel surface was assessed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

Findings

In this research it was determined that the effectiveness of the CP system was mainly attributable to the formation of an iron oxide film on the steel surface.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to carry out analysis of the chemical composition of deposits formed on the steel surface, perhaps using X‐ray diffraction (XRD), to verify the presence of a protective oxide.

Practical implications

Deposits on the steel surface have the beneficial effect of reducing the current required for efficient protection. Deposit formation therefore is of economic interest, as it decreases the cost of protection.

Originality/value

A unique feature of cathodic protection in seawater is the formation of calcareous deposits on metal surfaces. Advantageous aspects of these deposits, such as decrease in cathodic current requirement, have been investigated by various authors from various viewpoints. However, very little attention has been paid to the impact of any iron corrosion product films; the present paper contributes useful understanding and explains the importance of the mechanism that controls the operation of the protection system.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 60 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Gustavo Lopez, Hugo Tiznado, Gerardo Soto Herrera, Wencel De la Cruz, Benjamin Valdez, Miguel Schorr and Zlatev Roumen

The electronics industry has grown over the past 50 years, mostly in developed countries, contributing to their economic progress. Particularly in the Baja California…

Abstract

Purpose

The electronics industry has grown over the past 50 years, mostly in developed countries, contributing to their economic progress. Particularly in the Baja California State located in the northwest of Mexico, these companies have prospered in the industrial parks of Mexicali considered as an arid zone and Ensenada, a port and city on the Pacific Ocean considered as a marine region. In both environments, during winter and summer, the climate impacts on indoor conditions, affecting humidity and temperature, and generating corrosion which decreases the yields of the electronic devices and industrial machines. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of corrosion on electronic devices in these arid and marine environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper determines the corrosivity levels inside industrial plants of desertic and coast regions in Mexico, to evaluate the deterioration of electronic metals.

Findings

Relative humidity, temperature, time of wetness, are recorded and related to the corrosion process in arid and marine environments.

Research limitations/implications

Some missing information about air pollution in Ensenada from some Environmental Monitoring Stations was a limitation, and the need to use complex atmospheric techniques.

Originality/value

The paper shows that it is very important to control metallic corrosion generated by climate factors and air pollution in indoor industrial plants: the corrosion of electronic devices and equipments depletes their yield and can lead to loss‐making failures.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Lopez Badilla Gustavo, Valdez Salas Benjamin, Schorr Wiener Miguel, Rosas Gonzalez Navor, Tiznado Vazquez Hugo and Soto Herrara Gerardo

The purpose of this paper is to study the indoor corrosion of metals used in the electronics industry, as influenced by climate factors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the indoor corrosion of metals used in the electronics industry, as influenced by climate factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Corrosivity levels inside industrial plants were evaluated to evaluate the deterioration of metals.

Findings

Relative humidity, temperature, and time of wetness are recorded and related to the corrosion process.

Originality/value

Control of climate factors indoors in industrial plants to reduce and control the corrosion process of metals used in the electronics industry.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Benjamin Valdez, Michael Schorr, Margarito Quintero, Monica Carrillo, Roumen Zlatev, Margarita Stoytcheva and Juan de Dios Ocampo

The aim of this work is to study the corrosion and scaling factors, mechanisms and processes affecting the materials, equipment and installations of the Cerro Prieto…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this work is to study the corrosion and scaling factors, mechanisms and processes affecting the materials, equipment and installations of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (GTF).

Design/methodology/approach

The physicochemical characteristics of the geothermal well and fluids were analysed, recorded and related to the corrosion and scaling phenomena.

Findings

The high temperature and salinity of the steam‐brine mixture and the presence of hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide impart a severe level of corrosivity.

Originality/value

Corrosion and scaling control assure an efficient production regime, provide for the durability of the GTF engineering materials and equipment and contribute to environmental quality.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Michel Klein

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor. It develops a conceptual framework that helps organize and synthesize key insights from the literature, in an interactional and multi-level perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This integrated framework consists in a mapping of key research themes resulting from a systematic literature review, which includes research in sales and marketing. As critical affective processes in sales have not been studied sufficiently, both in business-to-business and business-to-customer selling, this review also incorporates works in other research fields.

Findings

Sales representatives’ emotional labor must be considered as a bi-directional interaction with the customer in a multi-level perspective. Moreover, emotional labor has rather negative consequences for the salesperson (e.g. burnout and job stress), but may have positive sales and customer outcomes. Findings suggest that the expression of genuine emotions should be used during sales interactions. In addition, organizations should prevent customers’ negative behaviors (e.g. mistreatment).

Practical implications

Emotional labor key practical implications with regard to several management functions such as the recruitment, performance management and training (Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002) of the sales representatives.

Originality/value

Research on emotional labor in a sales ecosystem is scarce. It has largely covered service industry employees in contact with customers, but has not paid enough attention to sales representatives (Mikeska et al., 2015). The proposed integrated framework concerning emotional labor focuses on the bi-directional interaction between the sales representatives and their customers.

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