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Enron, Parmalat, BP, Wal-Mart, Monsanto, Halliburton, Nike, Merck, Google,…the list goes on and on. It is widely acknowledged that business organizations are among the most important drivers of the quality of life that our society enjoys in our day, but the well-publicized samples of dishonest behavior by high-profile organizations around the world create no small amount of skepticism and cynicism.
The aim of this study is to highlight developments and opportunities in the retail and distribution sectors of China. In particular, we focus on the entry of international…
The aim of this study is to highlight developments and opportunities in the retail and distribution sectors of China. In particular, we focus on the entry of international retailers into this rapidly growing market and classify various forms of retailing in China. The emerging Southeast Asian markets are still dependent on traditional and inefficient distribution and retailing systems. These markets are ripe for cultivation by international retailers whose advanced systems, processes, and management and marketing skills can bring added levels of efficiency and enhanced performance to these markets.
As has been widely recognized in the literature, the post‐war economic boom which drew to a close by the early 1970s has been followed by an intense period of industrial…
As has been widely recognized in the literature, the post‐war economic boom which drew to a close by the early 1970s has been followed by an intense period of industrial restructuring characterized by marked instability in all three major spheres of economic activity: production, distribution, and finance. This process has taken place both at the global level and at the level of national economies (Cardenas, 1990). It reflects a profound change in the mode of capitalist accumulation. Prior to the current round of restructuring, accumulation was taken to be principally the inward‐oriented task of each nation's own economy. Now, it seems that successful capital accumulation (i.e. development) depends most upon a nation's competitive integration into the world market for goods and services (Garrido, 1995). The present mode of accumulation implies an opening of national economies to international trade in commodities and capital, both among the advanced industrial nations and between the industrialized and the newly‐industrializing countries. This has generated a heightened degree of competition among countries and among firms, given that the easy movement of capital, goods, and services has allowed for real competition to emerge among dispersed places around the globe based upon their comparative financial and productive advantages.
This paper aims to examine the multiplicity of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standards, explaining its nature, dynamics and implications for multinational…
This paper aims to examine the multiplicity of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standards, explaining its nature, dynamics and implications for multinational enterprises (MNEs) and international business (IB), especially in the context of CSR and global value chain (GVC) governance.
This paper leverages insights from the literature in political science, policy, regulation, governance and IB; from the own earlier work; and from an inventory of CSR standards across a range of sectors and products.
This analysis’ more nuanced approach to CSR standard multiplicity helps distinguish the different categories of standards; uncovers the existence of different types of standard multiplicity; and highlights complex trends in their evolution over time, discussing implications for the various firms targeted by, or involved in, these initiatives, and for CSR and GVC governance research.
This paper opens many avenues for future research on CSR multiplicity and its consequences; on lead firms governing GVCs from an IB perspective; and on institutional and market complexity.
By providing overviews and classifications, this paper helps clarify CSR standards as “new regulators” and “instruments” for actors in business, society and government.
This paper contributes by filling gaps in different existing literatures concerning standard multiplicity. It also specifically adds a new perspective to the IB literature, which thus far has not fully incorporated the complexity and dynamics of CSR standard multiplicity in examining GVCs and MNE strategy and policy.
Low cost financing in establishing economical development is very important. At this point, financial intermediaries provide great contributions to economic development by…
Low cost financing in establishing economical development is very important. At this point, financial intermediaries provide great contributions to economic development by eliminating asymetrical information problem between lender and borrower. It is possible to see capital market in anglo‐saxon countries and banking system in Europe and Japan mostly from historical dimension. However, long term financing is done through capital market in most developed countries at present. It is a common characteristic in countries such as Turkey, Chile and Mexico whose economies are financed by banking system. Singh and Weisse (1998), suggests that it is because of late industrialisation 1. Developing countries are generally those where there is less capital. Therefore attracting both internal and external savings into the banking system (for these countries) is very important from economical development point. At this point, powerful banks are preferred by the investors. Because the possibilty of failure is low (for these banks) 2. The most important factor that effects banks risk structure is public’s role. Because public can effect banks risk structure both at macro and micro level. Public’s influence on bank’s risk structure at macro economic level is due to general economical structure. If the general economic structure has high volatility and is away from consistency, this situation will increase the risk for banking sector. On the other hand, fiscal dominance is one of the main problems especially in developing countries. Fiscal dominance caused by lack of enough public revenue affects banking sector negatively. Thus, a goverment which can not prepare the macro economic environment where banks can function at high productivity will increase banks’ risks. In addition, banks require strict regulations and controlling as its structure is open to fraud. That these regulations are ignored or not prepared will lead to risk accumulation in the sector. It becomes a social responsibility of the state to take necessary cautions as these kinds of issues change a large cost on the society. Within this framework, the aim of our study is to examine public’s role on fragilities in banking sector. These examinations will be conducted for Turkey which experienced a collapse in banking sector in the recent period. In the first and second part of our study, public’s influence on the sector at macro and micro level will be examined. Experiences gained through Turkey example will be presented in the conclusion.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the perception and psychosocial impact of caregiving for Latino family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the perception and psychosocial impact of caregiving for Latino family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and compare them to non-Hispanic (NH) white caregivers.
The paper opted for a survey design using the Screen for Caregiver Burden, Perceived Stress Scale, Short Form 36 Health Survey, Symptom Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Depression, Sense of Coherence, Coping Resources Inventory, and the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ-85). A total of 202 participants with 53 Latino caregivers (majority were Mexican-Americans) and 149 NH white caregivers also completed an in-depth qualitative interview describing their experience as caregivers.
Latino caregivers, as compared to NH white caregivers, have higher subjective and objective caregiver burden and lower general health, social function, and physical function. They also reported higher levels of bodily pain and somatic symptoms. Caregivers experience a great deal of stress that can adversely affect their emotional and physical well-being. Latino cultural values influence the meaning ascribed to caregiving and how caregivers attempt to balance a perceived duty to family.
The sample was a convenience sample of caregivers responding to an invitation to participate. The Latino sample included primarily caregivers of Mexican-American descent and represented Latinos living in the South West section of the USA. Future research needs to include Latinos of diverse nationalities.
The paper points out crucial differences between NH white and Latino caregivers. Understanding how Latino cultural values influence how Latinos perform and feel about caregiving duties may facilitate support for caregivers.
This paper fulfills an identified need to study Latino caregiving. Two bilingual and bicultural researchers were part of the research team facilitating the collection and analysis of qualitative data.
In a context of increasing globalization and neoliberal restructuring and with labor's power diminishing vis-à-vis employers, American workers have turned in recent years…
In a context of increasing globalization and neoliberal restructuring and with labor's power diminishing vis-à-vis employers, American workers have turned in recent years to community-based campaigns targeting local government. These mobilizations have received considerable attention from scholars who see this emerging community orientation as a significant strategic innovation. This study, alternatively, focuses on the subjective and ideological consequences of such mobilizations for those engaged in protest. In particular, it seeks to extend social movement theory regarding the transformative impact of collective action by asking: how do distinct forms of collective action bring about particular kinds of consciousness and identity among participants?
Scholars rooted in a variety of traditions – from theorists of “post-industrial” society and “new” social movements to state theorists and geographers – have suggested that identities fostered at the local level are characterized by a “defensive,” “introverted,” or “retrospective” quality. This study examines a local mobilization, the case of a living wage campaign in Chicago, which deviates from these expectations. Through an analysis of interviews with participants, I find that instead of spurring defensiveness the campaign engendered a citizenship identity that was both active and inclusive. In explaining why my findings diverge from existing theories of identity formation, my analysis highlights three conceptual deficiencies in the literature with respect to (1) the distinction between local versus transnational collective action, (2) the relationship between social movement goals/tactics and outcomes, and (3) the prioritization of “new” social movements over the labor movement. Examining the citizenship identities that developed during Chicago's living wage campaign is instructive, finally, for understanding the sources of counter-hegemonic subjectivity within a broader context of eroding citizenship rights and a dominant market fundamentalist ideology. More generally, this analysis paves the way for a more productive engagement among theories of social movements, citizenship, labor, and globalization.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
Identity movements rely on a shared “we-feeling” among a community of participants. In turn, such shared identities are possible when movement participants can…
Identity movements rely on a shared “we-feeling” among a community of participants. In turn, such shared identities are possible when movement participants can self-categorize themselves as belonging to one group. We address a debate as to whether community diversity enhances or impedes such protests, and investigate the role of racial diversity since it is a simple, accessible, and visible basis of community diversity and social categorization. We focus on American communities’ protests against Walmart's entry from 1998 until 2005 and ask whether racial diversity affects protests after accounting for a community's sense of pride and attachment to their town. We use distance from historical monuments as a proxy of a community's pride and attachment, and after controlling for it, we find that community's racial homogeneity significantly increases protests against Walmart.
We model the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm and an activist using an infinite-horizon dynamic stochastic game. The firm enhances its reputation through…
We model the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm and an activist using an infinite-horizon dynamic stochastic game. The firm enhances its reputation through “self-regulation”: voluntary provision of an abatement activity that reduces a negative externality. We show that in equilibrium the externality-reducing activity is subject to decreasing marginal returns, which can cause the firm to “coast on its reputation,” that is, decrease the level of externality-reducing activity as its reputation grows. The activist, which benefits from increases in the externality-reducing activity, can take two types of action that can harm the firm’s reputation: criticism, which can impair the firm’s reputation on the margin, and confrontation, which can trigger a crisis that may severely damage the firm’s reputation. The activist changes the reputational dynamics of the game by tending to keep the firm in reputational states in which it is highly motivated to invest in externality-reducing activity. Criticism and confrontational activity are shown to be imperfect substitutes. The more patient the activist or the more passionate it is about externality reduction, the more likely it is to rely on confrontation. The more patient the firm and the more important corporate citizenship is to firm’s brand equity, the more likely that it will be targeted by an activist that relies on confrontation.