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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2018

Jorge Alcaraz and Elizabeth Salamanca

The purpose of this study is to identify, based on social network theory, the relationship between the direction of international migration (immigration/emigration) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify, based on social network theory, the relationship between the direction of international migration (immigration/emigration) and the international movement of enterprises and their location.

Design/methodology/approach

A traditional gravity model and the Tobit estimation method are applied to three groups of countries from three different regions: Latin America, North America and the European Union. The study considers a period from 2001 to 2012.

Findings

The main results suggest that the international migration that goes from the European Union and North America to Latin America is related with the firms’ internationalization and their respective location.

Practical implications

Given that migration can be an important and reliable source of information, trust and knowledge, managers should see it as a “bridge” between the home and host countries, which, in turn, can increase their competitive advantage.

Social implications

Governments can learn how migration and outward foreign direct investment interact. In addition, they could develop political frameworks to accurately and effectively manage international migration (immigration and emigration) and FDI in the best interests of the stakeholders.

Originality/value

This study extends the social network theory by suggesting that networks are not only related with firms’ expansion abroad but as well with their location. This statement could be generalizable as long as emigration/networks (ethnic ties) are considered the links between the home and the host country.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Harald Sander and Sylvia Heuchemer

This chapter reviews the integration experiences and policies in Germany before and after the so-called “refugee crisis’. Chancellor Angela Merkel's famous words ‘wir…

Abstract

This chapter reviews the integration experiences and policies in Germany before and after the so-called “refugee crisis’. Chancellor Angela Merkel's famous words ‘wir schaffen das’ (we manage this) have mobilized both policy actions and a massive grassroots engagement. In this context, we discuss the scope, efficiency and impact of German integration and adaptation policies. We review critically how Germany has dealt institutionally with immigration in the past and how it has adjusted its institutional approach to deal with the refugee crisis. Furthermore, in a case study on integration policies in higher education, we highlight the interplay between institutional approaches and grassroots engagement to achieve integration objectives. We argue that to a certain extent, the refugee crisis has acted as a catalyst for Germany to come to terms with its long-denied status as an immigration country.

Details

Integration of Migrants into the Labour Market in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-904-5

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Heidi Ellise Collins and Santina Bertone

The purpose of this paper is to explore changes in the identity constructions of expatriate accompanying spouses, as experienced throughout their first year of adjustment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore changes in the identity constructions of expatriate accompanying spouses, as experienced throughout their first year of adjustment to living in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using interview data collected longitudinally throughout ten participants’ first year of living in Malaysia, changes observed in participants’ adjustment narratives over time form the basis of an analysis of successful and unsuccessful cases of identity adjustment.

Findings

An international relocation presents varying degrees of threat or challenge to expatriate spouses’ central identities. The degree of threat posed will predict the amount of redefinition of social, role, and personal identities required for successful adjustment across social, cultural, and personal domains. Men experienced threats to their career/worker identity, whereas women faced multiple threats to identities such as mother, wife/partner, child, and also their career/worker identity.

Research limitations/implications

Results of this small-n research may not be generalisable, but do offer new interpretations of adjustment processes, including potential gender differences. The usefulness of longitudinal narrative inquiry for exploring experience of change is highlighted.

Practical implications

Conversations about identity constructions should be held with expatriate spouses in order to support relocation decision making, and to customise support programmes. Governments wanting to attract and retain foreign talent should consider policies that address employment options for spouses, which will allow for the continuation of central career identities.

Originality/value

Longitudinal case study analysis results in new interpretations of the adjustment experiences of expatriate spouses over time.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Erin Ice

While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) promised to reduce inequalities in insurance coverage between Latinos and non-Latinos by expanding coverage, it also excluded a large…

Abstract

While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) promised to reduce inequalities in insurance coverage between Latinos and non-Latinos by expanding coverage, it also excluded a large portion of noncitizen immigrants. Past research has demonstrated that among Latinos, further inequalities have developed between citizens and noncitizens after the ACA took effect, but it is unclear if this pattern is unique to Latinos or is evident among non-Latinos as well. I use data from the 2011 to 2016 waves of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 369,386) to test how the relationship between citizenship status (native citizen, naturalized citizen, or noncitizen) and insurance coverage changed after the ACA, adjusting for health, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. I disaggregate the analysis by ethnicity to test whether this change differs between Latinos and non-Latinos. The analysis finds that after the ACA, naturalized citizens across ethnic groups moved toward parity with native citizens in health insurance coverage while the benefits of the ACA for noncitizens were conditional on ethnicity. For non-Latinos, lacking citizenship became less disadvantageous for predicting insurance coverage while for Latinos, lacking citizenship became even more disadvantageous in predicting insurance coverage. This bifurcation among noncitizens by ethnicity implies that while the ACA has strengthened institutional boundaries between citizens and noncitizens, this distinction is primarily affecting Latinos. The conclusion offers considerations on how legal systems of stratification influence population health processes.

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Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2015

Chien-Juh Gu

This chapter discusses how gender scholarship has transformed the study of immigration in the United States since the 1970s.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter discusses how gender scholarship has transformed the study of immigration in the United States since the 1970s.

Methodology/approach

This discussion is based on a synthesized review of immigration studies and their connections to gender scholarship in different historical contexts.

Findings

Over the past four decades, gender scholarship has significantly shaped the theories, methodologies, and core concerns in immigration studies in the United States. Before the 1970s, immigration research focused on men. Studies of immigrant women began in the 1980s, which not only challenged previous gender-blind perspectives but also highlighted women’s unique experiences. From the mid-1980s to the early 1990s, the study of gender and immigration focused on immigrant women’s vulnerabilities in the global economy and enhancing women’s status at home through employment in the host society. Since the 1990s, more diverse topics have emerged to involve discussion on globalization and transnationalism. These gendering trends in immigration studies have not taken place in an intellectual vacuum. Rather, they have been influenced by developments in gender scholarship within different historical contexts.

Research limitations/implications

To enrich gender-focused and feminism-informed research in immigration studies, scholars will have to build connections across subareas and engage in dialogues with each other. More immigrant groups must also be studied to reflect the extremely diverse make-up of current immigrants in the United States. Intersectional analyses are also needed to avoid homogenizing studied groups. Finally, mainstream immigration research must begin to perceive gender as an essential analytical framework.

Details

At the Center: Feminism, Social Science and Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-078-4

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Geoff Lindsay, Sonali Shah and Mary Kyriazopoulou

Multicultural and multi-ethnic diversity is increasing across Europe. The current influx of migrants from conflict zones such as Syria and Iraq makes the issue even more…

Abstract

Multicultural and multi-ethnic diversity is increasing across Europe. The current influx of migrants from conflict zones such as Syria and Iraq makes the issue even more important and challenging. Consequently, how we consider the identification of special educational needs (SEN) and then the making of appropriate provision to meet those needs must change. In this chapter we examine the interface between these important factors – SEN and ethnic origin. We draw upon two research programmes in order to highlight these issues. First, we examine large-scale studies using quantitative methods to explore the relationship between ethnicity and different categories of SEN. Second, we report research that uses qualitative methods, exploring the perspectives of children and young people with SEN, growing up in multicultural United Kingdom. Although these research studies were carried out in the United Kingdom, they have resonance across Europe, and beyond.

Details

Implementing Inclusive Education: Issues in Bridging the Policy-Practice Gap
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-388-7

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Tilokie Depoo

This paper aims to examine the remittance behavior of Guyanese immigrants living in three communities of New York City, USA to assess their remittance behavior and if…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the remittance behavior of Guyanese immigrants living in three communities of New York City, USA to assess their remittance behavior and if these are motivated by altruism or the intent to return to live in Guyana. Over the last two decades, remittances accounted for approximately 17 percent of the GDP of the Guyanese economy and continue to grow. The bulk of these remittances are significant from its native sons and daughters residing in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study uses non-experimental survey research design with survey data collected from 300 participants living in New York, with 236 selected for analysis.

Findings

Guyanese living in New York City remit monies to Guyana because of a pure altruistic motive as well as believing that their contributions have a positive impact on the economic development of their nations regardless of their intention to return to Guyana. These findings support the altruistic model on remittance motivation.

Research limitations/implications

The data gathered for this survey are restricted to three communities in the USA where Guyanese are significant in numbers, thus limiting generalizations and findings to other countries such as Canada, England, where there are significant enclaves of Guyanese immigrants.

Practical implications

New York-based Guyanese deem their remittances as contributing to the economic development of their country. This suggest that there may room for a coordinated policy on the part of the Government of Guyana to develop a coordinated plan to engage overseas-based Guyanese to remit more to help with Guyana economic development efforts.

Originality/value

This is the first study to survey Guyanese in their host countries to gather information on remittances motivation and the perceived impact of these remittances from the sender's perspective. The paper highlights the significant remittance contributions of US-based Guyanese and their net private flows to Guyana.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Daniel Makina

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictability of remittances in individual developing countries. It achieves this objective by testing for mean reversion…

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285

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictability of remittances in individual developing countries. It achieves this objective by testing for mean reversion (i.e. stationarity) in the monthly remittance series reported to the World Bank by 21 developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Unit root tests on remittance time series are undertaken using three tests – the augmented Dickey-Fuller test, the Phillip-Peron test and the Kwiatkowshi, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin test. Stationarity of series in levels would indicate mean reversion and predictability of remittances.

Findings

The paper finds significant evidence of mean reversion and hence predictability in remittance inflows in 17 developing countries.

Practical implications

Remittance inflows, which have become an important source of external finance for many developing countries, are not random flows but a stable and predictable stream of financial flows.

Originality/value

Prior research has focused on volatility of remittances in comparison with other capital flows and then inferred stability from them having lower volatility. Using available monthly data, this paper is the first to directly test for mean reversion and hence predictability of remittances.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Evelyn S. Devadason and Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and unskilled immigrants for a panel of 23 manufacturing industries…

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1347

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and unskilled immigrants for a panel of 23 manufacturing industries in Malaysia, spanning the period 1985-2009.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper establishes the causal FDI-immigrant links within a multivariate model framework for the period 2000-2009, and in a univariate context for 1985-1999 and 1985-2009.

Findings

Based on heterogeneous panel cointegration tests, there is a long-run equilibrium between inward FDI, unskilled migrant share, output growth, export intensity and market concentration. The long-run cointegrating coefficient based on the fully modified least squares estimator suggests the presence of unskilled migrant workers a significant location determinant for inward FDI for the first sub-period and the overall period. The results of the panel vector error correction model further attest to causal links between unskilled migrant worker presence and inward FDI in the short- and long run. Bidirectional causality between inward capital and labour flows is present in the first sub-period and unidirectional causal links from unskilled migrants to inward FDI is evident for the overall period.

Research limitations/implications

The observed FDI-immigration (unskilled) links in manufacturing support the argument that inward FDI is induced by unskilled migration. The study reveals that unskilled immigration increases FDI inflows or rather “capital chases labour” in terms of international factor mobility.

Practical implications

This has profound implications for public policy as the government seeks to reduce its dependence on migrant workers. Policy coordination is therefore needed between regulating inflows of foreign capital and foreign labour so that implemented policies do not pull in different directions and undermine Malaysia’s attractiveness as a destination for FDI.

Originality/value

The large presence of unskilled migrants, an intrinsic characteristic (based on the new trade theory that includes factor endowments) of Malaysia, seems to be largely ignored when explaining FDI inflows to manufacturing, particularly so when the siting of MNCs in this sector have traditionally been in light scale manufacturing.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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