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1 – 10 of over 3000
Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Vilmante Kumpikaite -Valiuniene, Jurga Duobiene, Ashly H. Pinnington and Abdelmounaim Lahrech

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial, persistent emigration and explores theories of diaspora investment motivation and virtual work characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory questionnaire survey on migrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin was conducted in late 2016 on 3,022 respondents, all emigrants from Lithuania.

Findings

Migrants are more likely to engage in virtual work for their country of origin when they experience negative career satisfaction, perceive the country of origin as their home country, belong to a recent wave of migration and possess occupational skills commonly employed in virtual work.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this study conducted on emigrants from one country is that it does not permit generalisation of the results to other countries and regions. It is limited, thus, to making general comparisons to what is known in the literature about migrants from other nations. However, the authors have identified some of the main factors which have theoretical and empirical import for future research, and the auhtors have argued that the results of our study possess only a few inherent geographic limitations. This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the conceptual model of virtual workplaces of Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al. (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle's (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory.

Practical implications

Understanding how and when organisations will work virtually with migrants from the country of origin as well as knowing more about their needs and expectations for migrants' knowledge, skills and work experience are necessary for future research on the attractiveness and potential of virtual work. As a first step in exploring diaspora motivation for virtual work, the authors recommend conducting qualitative research that would investigate more deeply the various motivations migrants can have for virtual work with their country or origin. This study revealed that females are more motivated to work virtually compared to males. However, gender issues have not been explored in this survey and constitute a future study direction.

Social implications

Moreover, future research should examine what areas of human capital, commercial and cultural knowledge can be productively delivered by migrants working virtually for organisations in the country of origin, which will contribute to greater understanding of knowledge transfer and human capital issues (“brain gain”) in the migration literature. Further, specific forms of virtual work should be studied empirically for the extent that they provide opportunities for self-development and for satisfaction in personal lives and work careers. In addition, the potential business and societal benefits for the country of origin should be studied further through examining diverse dimensions of family, community, work and careers. These studies will expand knowledge of virtual work and related research phenomena and will contribute to this gap in the migration and human resource management (HRM) literature studies.

Originality/value

This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the proposed conceptual model of virtual workplaces by Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory. The authors have identified some of the main factors that have theoretical and empirical import for future study. This research topic and new related studies on diaspora have the potential to contribute to the fields of migration, HRM, work and career studies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Julie Knight

The purpose of this paper is to understand the motivations and dynamics of Polish small business owners who are living and working in the United Kingdom several years…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the motivations and dynamics of Polish small business owners who are living and working in the United Kingdom several years after Poland’s enlargement to the European Union.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 39 Polish migrants, residing in the Cardiff area, in 2008 and 2011. During the 2008 data collection period, 20 interviews were completed, and during the 2011 data collection period, 19 interviews were completed.

Findings

The findings highlight that migrants become entrepreneurs for a variety of reasons, blurring the lines between cultural and economic entrepreneurship as well as between necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship. The findings also highlight the changing motivations of the ethnic entrepreneurs over time, particularly when the demand for their product is unsustainable.

Research limitations/implications

The generalisabilty of the research is limited because of the small sample size. In addition, the lack of Polish language skills of the interviewer may have influenced the sampling of the Polish community.

Practical implications

The findings from this article will have an impact on the wider ethnic entrepreneurship literature, migration-based policy and the cultural integration of migrants in the long-term.

Originality/value

This article contributes to the wider literature on ethnic entrepreneurship through considering the migrantsmotivations throughout their entire entrepreneurial period and how these motivations may evolve over time.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Migration Practice as Creative Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-766-4

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Allan Discua Cruz and Ingrid Fromm

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emergence of a social enterprise by highly skilled members of a diaspora. While most literature has focused on government…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emergence of a social enterprise by highly skilled members of a diaspora. While most literature has focused on government intervention for diaspora engagement and monetary remittance flows from migrants, less attention has been paid to the transfer of social remittances and social enterprises created by diasporas. Based on the concept of social remittances, social network theory and motivation perspectives, this study unpacks the emergence of a social enterprise by highly skilled migrants of a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines social enterprise emergence through an autoethnographic approach to describe and systematically analyze personal experience. This approach allows to understand cultural experience around the emergence of a social enterprise created by diverse members of a diaspora.

Findings

Findings reveal that diaspora knowledge networks (DKNs) can emerge through the activation of a highly skilled diaspora network structure. Core diaspora members can activate a latent network of highly skilled migrants that wish to fulfill intrinsic motivations. Findings support the extend current understandings of social remittances by highly skilled migrants, who emerge as a transnational community that desires to stay connected to their country-of-origin and can support the emergence of a transnational network structure for development. The findings reveal that place attachment, sense of duty and well-being are key factors for highly skilled migrants to engage in DKNs.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to literature on networks and migrant-based organizational emergence by examining how and why highly skilled migrants from a developing country engage in the emergence of a DKN. Findings challenge previous views of government intervention and provides evidence on how the transmission of collective social remittances can flow trans-nationally, making highly skilled migrants effective agents of knowledge circulation and DKNs a vehicle for transmission. More specifically, the study provides evidence of the relevance of transnational features in the context of diaspora networks that lead to organizational emergence. It underscores the influence of interrelated motivations in diaspora engagement studies.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Gökay Selcuk and Lech Suwala

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of…

Abstract

Purpose

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of motivation, resources, generational pathways of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs in Berlin – through the lens of a mixed and multiple embeddedness approach.

Design/methodology/approach

An explorative research design, based on an eclectic theoretical framework and on purposive sampling, combines qualitative in-depth interviews/content analysis and on-site observation resulting in an almost ethnographic assessment of selected case studies of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs (concerning age (min. 20 years), size (15+ employees) and currently at a stage of succession).

Findings

The results show that despite specific strategies vary – four circumstances hold true for all cases: (1) firm trajectories were characterized by little strategic planning and mostly trail-and error processes in the past and business survival is highly dependent on owner families; (2) owner families heavily relied on personal, family and collective resources, not benefiting from promotion programmes or micro-funding measures for SMEs; (3) owner families have actively developed their (mixed) embeddings during the growth of their migrant business beyond the single ethnic group at various spatial scales; (4) succession adds another layer of context – what we call here multiple embeddedness – with ambivalent effects: emerging potentials and conflicts between the preceding and succeeding generation.

Practical implications

Results have shown that is it necessary to set up both: customized funding opportunities for migrant start-ups in general and succession consulting for migrant family entrepreneurs in particular. Given the magnitude of family migrant entrepreneurs and the accelerating migration patterns in most Western European countries, there is urgent need for such measures.

Originality/value

Family entrepreneurship has been often discussed without a migration perspective, neither taking a systematic look at pertinent motivation, resources, and future trajectories nor context. Migrant entrepreneurship studies barely take the family or family-specific issues (e.g. succession) into account, and mainly deal with the integration or economic aspects. Our mixed and multiple embeddedness approach allows for a holistic view on transgenerational migrant family entrepreneurship by integrating both socio-spatial (actor, family, network, micro, meso, macro) and multi-generational contexts (preceding, succeeding).

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2014

Caitlin Jones and Andrea E. Williamson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles, motivations and experiences of volunteers who work to support asylum seekers (AS), refugees and refused asylum seekers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles, motivations and experiences of volunteers who work to support asylum seekers (AS), refugees and refused asylum seekers (RAS) in Glasgow.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight volunteer participants who worked to support migrants in Glasgow, two of which were AS. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were analysed using the framework approach.

Findings

The roles of participants were broad included providing “destitution relief” (providing shelter and food for destitute asylum seekers (DAS)) and acting as advocates for AS to help them access services. The most common reported motivation of participants was a humanitarian interest in the situation of migrants in Glasgow and the UK. In contrast, participants who were AS, volunteered because they could not work and it helped to improve their mental well-being. The complexity of the circumstances of some migrants was seen as the most challenging aspect of volunteering. Participants were involved first hand in the difficulties migrants had in accessing health and social services.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study confirmed the vital role voluntary organisations have in supporting migrants in Glasgow. It highlights the essential role volunteers have in supporting DAS and sets out some volunteer support needs. This has important implications for this context in Glasgow. Further work in other dispersal settings in the UK would help elucidate if this is replicable across the UK.

Practical implications

Volunteer's role as lay advocates should be recognised and then supported by statutory services such as primary care and social services.

Social implications

The overall view was that the system of claiming asylum poses numerous challenges for both migrants and the volunteers working to support them. AS can become completely reliant on the volunteers and the services they provide.

Originality/value

This is the first research study examining the roles, motivations and experiences of volunteers who support migrants.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Sathyajit R. Gubbi and Sinan A. Sular

Outward foreign direct investments (FDI) by Turkish firms in the new millennium show intriguing geographic distribution pattern and unlike the predictions of classical…

Abstract

Outward foreign direct investments (FDI) by Turkish firms in the new millennium show intriguing geographic distribution pattern and unlike the predictions of classical theories of FDI. In this study we contribute by linking the observed pattern of outward FDI with Turkish firms’ motivation for investment across national borders. We enrich research by collecting and analyzing FDI motivation data at the firm-level for a very important but less researched developing country: Turkey. Content analysis of text material on the foreign investments made by 211 Turkish firms reveals that Turkish firms primarily perform FDI in European developed countries for reasons other than conventional, namely, market- and strategic-asset-seeking motivations. More importantly, Turkish firms seem to be using the European countries to (1) present themselves as a European Union company, (2) make use of special features of these countries to expand their businesses within and to other countries and, (3) make use of the favorable tax treatment policies available to foreign investors. Surprisingly, our analysis shows that in spite of its small size, the Netherlands is a preferred destination for Turkish FDI over other Western European countries due to its strategic location and favorable investment policies.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Hamizah Abd Hamid and André M. Everett

This study aims to explore the co-ethnic relations of migrant entrepreneurs (MEs) from advanced economies in a developing country, specifically in the context of co-ethnic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the co-ethnic relations of migrant entrepreneurs (MEs) from advanced economies in a developing country, specifically in the context of co-ethnic ties among Korean migrant entrepreneurs (KMEs) operating business ventures in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is outlined by an embeddedness view and uses a qualitative approach using a single case study design.

Findings

For KMEs, in-group co-ethnic ties are mobilised in a relatively more structured manner coalescing personal and entrepreneurial endeavours, particularly demonstrating the dynamics of co-ethnic ties and the home country’s development levels. The findings lead to a model of migrant entrepreneurship for MEs from a more developed nation.

Originality/value

The theoretical value of this study lies in its clarification of the role of in-group ties in the setting of changing economic development levels and migration. Practice-wise, the findings on the adoption of co-ethnic ties that span formal, informal and transnational boundaries may inform migrants who are considering opportunities in less developed host countries, and assist stakeholders in developing policies concerning migrant communities and their ventures.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Ali Dehghanpour Farashah and Tomas Blomquist

Qualified immigrants (QIs) and their work experiences have been studied using a wide variety of theoretical approaches with divergent characteristics. This paper reviews…

Abstract

Purpose

Qualified immigrants (QIs) and their work experiences have been studied using a wide variety of theoretical approaches with divergent characteristics. This paper reviews theoretical progress and proposes directions for future research and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Using relevant keywords, articles indexed by Web of Science in management, business, industrial relations and applied psychology were systematically searched for and analysed. In total, 60 theoretical articles published during 2008–2018 were included. The theoretical progress and future theoretical and practical challenges were organised based on the notions of equality, diversity and inclusion.

Findings

Eight theoretical approaches utilised to study QIs' work experiences were recognised: (1) human capital theory, (2) career capital theory, (3) theory of practice, (4) intersectionality, (5) social identity theory, (6) sensemaking, (7) cultural identity transition and (8) the career-centred approach. The contributions and limitations of each theoretical lens were then scrutinised. Overall, research on QIs still lacks a comprehensive theoretical framework. As a step towards that, the paper proposes considering the role of organisations and labour market intermediaries, strategic view over the immigrant workforce, agency–institution play, identity–capital play and host–immigrant play.

Research limitations/implications

The focus is on theory development and empirical papers with no clear theoretical foundation are excluded.

Originality/value

This review is the first attempt to summarise and direct the divergent research on the topic. The main contribution is setting an agenda for future research, particularly by proposing the elements of a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying QIs in the workplace.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Kostas G. Mavromaras

This paper investigates the relative remuneration of migrants and German nationals in paid employment in pre‐unification Germany. Using microdata it shows that migrants

Abstract

This paper investigates the relative remuneration of migrants and German nationals in paid employment in pre‐unification Germany. Using microdata it shows that migrants typically earn higher wages than comparable German nationals. The paper also shows the distinction between genders and skill levels to be crucial in the determination of wage gaps. Wage gaps are decomposed in the standard Oaxaca‐Blinder way and their development is examined using counterfactual analysis. The paper also shows that conventionally defined wage discrimination works in favour of migrants. Counterfactuals show that, largely, the remunerative advantage of migrants survived the 1981‐1983 recession. However, when employment developments are considered, a much bleaker picture arises. The 1981‐1983 recession destroyed jobs that have been traditionally occupied by migrants (manual and skilled jobs). Post‐recession restructuring generated jobs that went almost exclusively to German nationals (salaried jobs).

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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