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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Vilmante Kumpikaite -Valiuniene, Jurga Duobiene, Ashly H. Pinnington and Abdelmounaim Lahrech

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial, persistent emigration and explores theories of diaspora investment motivation and virtual work characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory questionnaire survey on migrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin was conducted in late 2016 on 3,022 respondents, all emigrants from Lithuania.

Findings

Migrants are more likely to engage in virtual work for their country of origin when they experience negative career satisfaction, perceive the country of origin as their home country, belong to a recent wave of migration and possess occupational skills commonly employed in virtual work.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this study conducted on emigrants from one country is that it does not permit generalisation of the results to other countries and regions. It is limited, thus, to making general comparisons to what is known in the literature about migrants from other nations. However, the authors have identified some of the main factors which have theoretical and empirical import for future research, and the auhtors have argued that the results of our study possess only a few inherent geographic limitations. This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the conceptual model of virtual workplaces of Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al. (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle's (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory.

Practical implications

Understanding how and when organisations will work virtually with migrants from the country of origin as well as knowing more about their needs and expectations for migrants' knowledge, skills and work experience are necessary for future research on the attractiveness and potential of virtual work. As a first step in exploring diaspora motivation for virtual work, the authors recommend conducting qualitative research that would investigate more deeply the various motivations migrants can have for virtual work with their country or origin. This study revealed that females are more motivated to work virtually compared to males. However, gender issues have not been explored in this survey and constitute a future study direction.

Social implications

Moreover, future research should examine what areas of human capital, commercial and cultural knowledge can be productively delivered by migrants working virtually for organisations in the country of origin, which will contribute to greater understanding of knowledge transfer and human capital issues (“brain gain”) in the migration literature. Further, specific forms of virtual work should be studied empirically for the extent that they provide opportunities for self-development and for satisfaction in personal lives and work careers. In addition, the potential business and societal benefits for the country of origin should be studied further through examining diverse dimensions of family, community, work and careers. These studies will expand knowledge of virtual work and related research phenomena and will contribute to this gap in the migration and human resource management (HRM) literature studies.

Originality/value

This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the proposed conceptual model of virtual workplaces by Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory. The authors have identified some of the main factors that have theoretical and empirical import for future study. This research topic and new related studies on diaspora have the potential to contribute to the fields of migration, HRM, work and career studies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Nikolaos Xypolytas

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the country of origin for understanding the process of migrant exclusion. Migrant exclusion is treated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the country of origin for understanding the process of migrant exclusion. Migrant exclusion is treated holistically and viewed as a long process of three distinct stages: preparation, allocation and habituation. The focus will be on the analysis of the first stage, which takes place in the country of origin, and its role for the development of the other two equally important stages.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on 45 life history interviews with migrant domestic workers from Ukraine, living and working in Greece.

Findings

The research suggests that there are three aspects of life and work in Ukraine that constitute the preparation of migrants for their social and occupational role in the host country and decisively contribute to their exclusion: low-status work in Ukraine, the undermining of familial ties and the need to repay the loans taken for the migration journey.

Originality/value

The paper wishes to contribute to the theoretical and empirical discussion on migrant exclusion and stresses the importance of looking at the country of origin as an analytical tool for a sociological analysis of migration.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Allan Discua Cruz and Ingrid Fromm

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emergence of a social enterprise by highly skilled members of a diaspora. While most literature has focused on government…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emergence of a social enterprise by highly skilled members of a diaspora. While most literature has focused on government intervention for diaspora engagement and monetary remittance flows from migrants, less attention has been paid to the transfer of social remittances and social enterprises created by diasporas. Based on the concept of social remittances, social network theory and motivation perspectives, this study unpacks the emergence of a social enterprise by highly skilled migrants of a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines social enterprise emergence through an autoethnographic approach to describe and systematically analyze personal experience. This approach allows to understand cultural experience around the emergence of a social enterprise created by diverse members of a diaspora.

Findings

Findings reveal that diaspora knowledge networks (DKNs) can emerge through the activation of a highly skilled diaspora network structure. Core diaspora members can activate a latent network of highly skilled migrants that wish to fulfill intrinsic motivations. Findings support the extend current understandings of social remittances by highly skilled migrants, who emerge as a transnational community that desires to stay connected to their country-of-origin and can support the emergence of a transnational network structure for development. The findings reveal that place attachment, sense of duty and well-being are key factors for highly skilled migrants to engage in DKNs.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to literature on networks and migrant-based organizational emergence by examining how and why highly skilled migrants from a developing country engage in the emergence of a DKN. Findings challenge previous views of government intervention and provides evidence on how the transmission of collective social remittances can flow trans-nationally, making highly skilled migrants effective agents of knowledge circulation and DKNs a vehicle for transmission. More specifically, the study provides evidence of the relevance of transnational features in the context of diaspora networks that lead to organizational emergence. It underscores the influence of interrelated motivations in diaspora engagement studies.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Case study
Publication date: 1 January 2011

Liesl Riddle, Tjai M. Nielsen and George A. Hrivnak

Entrepreneurship, management and emerging markets.

Abstract

Subject area

Entrepreneurship, management and emerging markets.

Study level/applicability

Undergraduate and Graduate courses in Entrepreneurship, Managing in Developing Countries/Emerging Markets, Small Business Management, Social Entrepreneurship, International Business

Case overview

IntEnt is a business incubator that provides training and other support services to nascent entrepreneurs, helping turn their investment ideas into successful business ventures. But IntEnt focuses on a unique clientele: diasporas, or migrants and their descendants, who dream of establishing a new venture back in their country of origin.The incubator is well known and respected by policymakers and migrants alike. Despite these successes, Mr Molenaar has struggled to grow and diversify IntEnt's funding base. He also is under increasing pressure from the foundation's stakeholders to define and measure the foundation's performance. But Molenaar is committed to expanding IntEnt's operations and continue to bridge the divide between diaspora investment interest and action.

Expected learning outcomes

To understand and describe the financial-, human-, and social-capital challenges faced by transnational diaspora business ventures during the business development and launch phase.To explain how business incubators can provide solutions to the specific, unique problems that transnational diaspora entrepreneurs face, particularly in emerging markets. To discuss the governance challenges associated with operating a transnational business venture as well as those of an incubator aimed to support transnational entrepreneurship.

Supplementary materials

Teaching note.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Sandra Milena Santamaria-Alvarez and Martyna Śliwa

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transnational entrepreneurial activities of Colombian emigrants to the USA in the context of the Colombian government’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transnational entrepreneurial activities of Colombian emigrants to the USA in the context of the Colombian government’s policies and initiatives aimed at encouraging and facilitating emigrants’ transnational entrepreneurship. It examines the profile of Colombian emigrants, the entrepreneurial transnational activities they pursue and the actual and potential role of the government in instigating and shaping these activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes data obtained from focus groups with migrant families and interviews with governmental officials and an expert researcher. It also evaluates secondary data sources relevant to the subject of the paper.

Findings

The impact of transnational activities of Colombian migrants upon Colombian economy and society is much lower compared with the activities of migrants in other countries and with the potential these activities could have for contributing to the economic development of Colombia. Possible causes of this include: the specific characteristics of the Colombian emigrant and entrepreneur profile, the fragmentation of transnational networks of the migrants and the lack of governmental strategies to support the development of transnational activities of migrants.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the debates on emigrant–state relation through offering an analysis of migrant entrepreneurship, technology and knowledge transfer and investment activities of Colombian emigrants in the home country. It also provides recommendations for policy action and concrete government programs that might encourage greater involvement of Colombian migrants in high value-adding activities that could benefit the country’s development.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Muhammad Azam

The purpose of this paper is to examine the macroeconomic impact of migrant workers’ remittances on economic growth in four developing Asian countries namely: Bangladesh…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the macroeconomic impact of migrant workers’ remittances on economic growth in four developing Asian countries namely: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes annual time series data over the period 1976-2012 and the ordinary least squares as an analytical technique for parameters estimation.

Findings

Empirical results support the existence of a significant positive relationship between migrant workers remittances and economic growth. The other control variables such as foreign direct investment, openness to trade and infrastructure are also found to be statistically significant with expected signs.

Practical implications

The findings of this study are expected to guide policy makers in formulating the right and relevant policies through which migrant workers’ remittances can be made more productive and its benefits for both migrants and the country of origin are maximized. Consequently, it will foster economic growth and development.

Originality/value

This paper provides some valuable evidences on the significance of migrant workers remittances as a source of economic growth. Moreover, the study differs from the erstwhile studies in terms of control variables, time period and method of estimation. Finally, the empirical results established are relatively robust.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Sandra Milena Santamaria Alvarez and Martyna S′liwa

This paper aims to analyse the transnational activities of Colombian migrants in the USA; the reasons why migrants engage, or not, in these activities; and the impact of

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the transnational activities of Colombian migrants in the USA; the reasons why migrants engage, or not, in these activities; and the impact of migrants’ transnational activities at the household, community and national levels.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyses data obtained from focus groups with migrant families and interviews with government officials and an expert researcher, as well as secondary data sources.

Findings

The main transnational activities in which Colombian migrants engage in are individually oriented, while participation in collective actions such as philanthropy or membership of political parties and hometown associations is limited. The impact of those activities varies when analysed at different levels. Overall, transnational activities of Colombian migrants can be seen as contributing to the perpetuation of south–north dependency, even if they help improve the socioeconomic situation of migrants and their families.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the migration–development nexus debate by pointing to the significance of distinguishing the level of analysis (micro, meso and macro) when studying the impacts of transnationalism on development.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Ilaria Benedetti, Tiziana Laureti and Andrea Regoli

This paper aims to contribute to the body of research on job satisfaction as a subjective dimension of the quality of working life. Specifically, it addresses the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the body of research on job satisfaction as a subjective dimension of the quality of working life. Specifically, it addresses the comparison of job satisfaction between native-born and foreign-born workers in 28 European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A multilevel modelling framework is used for exploring the variability associated with every hierarchical level (individuals constitute the first-level units, combinations country-activity sector are the second-level units and countries are the third-level units).

Findings

The country-specific native-migrant gap in job satisfaction displays some heterogeneity across countries when accounting for socio-demographic and job-related characteristics. Country-level factors have a significant effect on job satisfaction score of all resident workers. Nevertheless, they do not moderate significantly the effect of immigrant status on job satisfaction across countries.

Research limitations/implications

The unavailability of data on migrants' country of origin and duration of stay in the host country prevents from exploring in more details the integration issues of migrants.

Social implications

Job satisfaction of migrant workers, as an indicator of their working conditions, is fundamental for evaluating the degree of social integration of migrants in their host countries

Originality/value

A distinctive trait of this research is the use of the 2013 ad hoc EU-SILC module on subjective well-being, which contains subjective evaluations of the satisfaction with the job as well as with other different life domains. Further distinctive aspects are the investigation of (1) the direct effect of country-level factors on job satisfaction and (2) whether country-level factors mediate the effect of the immigrant status on job satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Boris Sergeyev and Igor Kazanets

Influx of labor migrants into Russia makes it necessary to put TB prevention measures in place, both inside and outside of Russian borders. While inside Russia TB response…

Abstract

Purpose

Influx of labor migrants into Russia makes it necessary to put TB prevention measures in place, both inside and outside of Russian borders. While inside Russia TB response is premised on testing migrants applying for work or residence permits for diseases of public significance, millions of migrants – specifically, those working without completing necessary paperwork – evade this requirement. In light of that, the purpose of this paper is to propose introducing disease screening in migrant-sending countries, i.e. testing of potential migrants for infectious diseases in local medical institutions certified by Russian authorities.

Design/methodology/approach

To support the proposal, the authors provide review of official data on TB prevalence among migrants in Russia as well as publications on international experience with conducting disease screening in migrant-sending countries.

Findings

Available studies demonstrate that conducting disease screening programs in migrant-sending countries is associated with earlier detection of TB cases, shorter period of infectiousness and hospitalization, and significant savings in health budget.

Originality/value

Taking into account this experience, the authors propose introducing disease screening programs in CIS both under current legal arrangements and with the requirement for labor migrants to produce medical certificate when entering Russia being introduced. The need for trans-border cooperation in assuring positive health outcomes among labor migrants is also highlighted.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Migration Practice as Creative Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-766-4

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