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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Martina Lo Cascio and Domenico Perrotta

This chapter deals with labour conditions and discrimination of migrant workers in Italy, with a particular focus on the agricultural sector in two Southern Italian areas…

Abstract

This chapter deals with labour conditions and discrimination of migrant workers in Italy, with a particular focus on the agricultural sector in two Southern Italian areas: Northern Basilicata and Western Sicily. The first part of the chapter describes the history of migration to Italy and the most relevant transformations occurred over the last years, as well as an overview of the relevant legislation on migration and racial discrimination at work. The second part, on the basis of two ethnographic studies realized by the two authors, analyses the complex intertwinement of structural and symbolic violence in determining the conditions of exploitation and discrimination of migrant seasonal labourers in the two areas. The study focuses on three topics: piecework payment; the ghettoization and segregation of seasonal labourers; the system of informal and illegal labour intermediation called caporalato. It is argued that that the main source of symbolic violence is represented by the brokers called caporali, who are usually of the same nationality of the labourers. If, on a certain extent, migrant workers perceive their ghettoization, discrimination and exploitation as ‘normal’ and ‘acceptable’, this is due to the communitarian relationships built and manipulated by the caporali. On the contrary, the State and the local administrations seem to act exclusively as a source of structural violence. The national legislation on migration, as well as the lack of public policies concerning labour intermediation, transport and accommodation for seasonal labourers, appears as the main reason of the vulnerability of migrant workers in the considered areas.

Details

Race Discrimination and Management of Ethnic Diversity and Migration at Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-594-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Nathan T. Dollar

This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market…

Abstract

This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market incorporation and the structural conditions under which they work. I use public-use death certificate data to examine whether there is a mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in the secondary sector industries of agriculture and construction. I focus on the decade of the 1990s for two contextual and empirical reasons: (1) the decade was characterized by economic restructuring, restrictive immigration policy, increased migration, and dispersion of migrants to new geographic destinations; and (2) the 1990s is an opportunistic decade because 19 states coded the industry and occupation of the decedent during this time. These numerator mortality data and Census denominator data are used to compare all-cause mortality rates between working-age (16–64 years) US-born and foreign-born agricultural and construction workers, the overall foreign-born population, and foreign-born workers in health care – an industry where the foreign-born tend to work in well-paid occupations that are well-regulated by the state. The results show a clear mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in agriculture and construction compared to the overall foreign-born population and foreign-born healthcare workers. The results also show the mortality penalty for foreign-born secondary sector workers varies by industry. These findings support the argument that bringing work into our analyses is critical to understanding the contextual and structural factors affecting migrant health and survival.

Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Harriet Parfitt

The ‘hostile environment’ agenda of Government has effectively endorsed the deliberate exploitation of irregular migrants in the agricultural industry. This minor project…

Abstract

The ‘hostile environment’ agenda of Government has effectively endorsed the deliberate exploitation of irregular migrants in the agricultural industry. This minor project of jurisprudence will provide two arguments in support of this hypothesis. Firstly, the vulnerabilities faced by irregular migrants are reinforced through the xenophobic narrative embodied within the law and the courts. The lack of priority afforded to modern slavery on the UK Policy Agenda has allowed a ‘grey labour market’ (1) to develop. Irregular migrants face a ‘precarity paradox’ and (2) they must avoid the carceral regime of immigration control by entering into unprotected and deliberately exploitative work. Secondly, a lacklustre attempt to remedy the corruption in the horticultural industry proves that the state is preoccupied, capitalising on irregular labour practice in the interests of state capital. Thus, the Government allows the commodification of workers within the supply chain to profit British businesses.

Details

Privatisation of Migration Control: Power without Accountability?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-663-7

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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Gabrielle E. Clark

Since the late 1970s, US employers have increasingly drawn upon legal temporary labor under the H-2 visa to address their labor needs in low-waged sectors. Ever since…

Abstract

Since the late 1970s, US employers have increasingly drawn upon legal temporary labor under the H-2 visa to address their labor needs in low-waged sectors. Ever since, what Clark calls migrant labor activism and conflict in the courts has similarly erupted. However, as she argues in this chapter, making “adversarial legalism” the H-2 way of law has also been a story of comparative state formation. For, the litigation largely reflects the structure of labor migration created after the demise of government-run migration. In this regard, activists wrestle with the problems created by the new role of global labor intermediaries in the recruitment process, absolute employer control over hiring and firing, and the coercion produced in the shadow of a now minimally interventionist state. Drawing upon archival research, interviews with legal professionals, and the entire case law docket in this area, this chapter puts “adversarial legalism” under the H-2 visa in its historical and political context.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-058-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Shilpi Smita Panda and Nihar Ranjan Mishra

Seasonal labour migration is a common form of temporary migration where the work of the migrant labour depends on seasonal conditions and is performed only during that…

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Abstract

Purpose

Seasonal labour migration is a common form of temporary migration where the work of the migrant labour depends on seasonal conditions and is performed only during that period of year. This paper aims to identify the factors and subfactors of temporary labour migration from the existing literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an extensive review of the literature on temporary labour migration. Studies done from 1990 to 2016 were considered for review. The literatures from research articles, book chapters, working papers, conference papers and field-based project reports from various disciplines, like economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and management studies were reviewed for critically analysing various factors affecting seasonal labour migration.

Findings

A total of five key factors and 60 subfactors of temporary labour migration were documented from previous studies. The findings of the study are organized under five thematic segments: economic factors, social factors, environmental factors, policy-related factors and psychological factors New aspects of seasonal migration were identified such as “role of labour contractors ”, “inter-generational mobility”, “social networks”, “grassroot politics”, “migrant’s relationship with the agents”, “labour registration process”, “market intervention” and “civil society intervention” after consultation with the subject experts and field study.

Research limitations/implications

The paper restricts itself to include aspects of temporary labour migration. Only the factors and subfactors affecting temporary migration are taken into purview. Further the findings of the paper can be empirically tested to know the significance of each factor and subfactor.

Practical implications

The paper has implications for better understanding of the temporary labour migration process in different context by focussing extensively on the factors of migration. The factors identified can be empirically tested in regional and local context, which would provide effective insights for policy formulation for the welfare and protection of the migrant workers.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils an identified need to provide a holistic review for understanding and documenting various factors and subfactors that affect the process of temporary labour migration.

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Susana Caxaj and Luis Diaz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of belonging and wellbeing among temporary migrant agricultural workers (TMAWs) in a rural setting in the interior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of belonging and wellbeing among temporary migrant agricultural workers (TMAWs) in a rural setting in the interior of British Columbia, Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative narrative approach informed by participatory action research principles was employed. In total, 12 migrant workers participated in two to four one-on-one interviews and/or focus group conversations.

Findings

The analysis revealed an over-arching theme of Marginal Living encompassing stories of always on the outside, mechanisms of isolation and exclusion; struggling for the basics, realities of worrying about daily bare necessities; and “nothing but a worker’s,” experiences of being reduced only to one’s labor. These storied experiences each impacted workers’ wellbeing and typically limited their ability to feel a sense of belonging. Yet, workers exerted agency and resilience through storied experiences of “one family and for those who come next.” Their efforts contributed to building a sense of community through mutual support and advocacy.

Originality/value

Very few studies have focused on the day-to-day experiences of this population and its influence on their sense of belonging and wellbeing. This study is also the first to examine this topic within this particular region (the rural BC interior). These findings can provide a starting point for improved program planning to address challenges faced by TMAWs in rural Western Canada. Further, they expand the understanding of concepts such as partial citizenship and structural exclusion as they apply in the day-to-day realities of migrant workers in rural BC.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2009

C. Cindy Fan

The assumption that the family migrates as a unit downplays migrants’ circularity. This chapter focuses on China's rural–urban labor migrants that travel back and forth…

Abstract

The assumption that the family migrates as a unit downplays migrants’ circularity. This chapter focuses on China's rural–urban labor migrants that travel back and forth between the sites of work and home community and between places of work. I argue that migrants and their households pursue work flexibility in order to obtain the best of the urban and rural worlds, by gaining earnings from urban work and at the same time maintaining social and economic security in the countryside. Work flexibility demands flexibility in household organization, in the form of division of labor and collaboration between genders, generations, and households. Based on a study in Sichuan, I examine household biographies and narratives to identify migrants’ work and household strategies.

Migrants change jobs frequently, switch from one type of work to another and one location to another readily, and often return to the home village for months or even years before pursuing migrant work again. Not only are migrants ready to split the household between the city and the countryside, but also they frequently change from one form of division of labor to another. The inside–outside model, where the wife stays in the village and the husband does migrant work, used to be the dominant arrangement. Over time, the outside–outside model, where both the husband and wife migrate to work and leave behind other family members, is increasingly popular. This is facilitated by intergenerational and interhousehold division of labor in the form of assistance by the extended family. Intergenerational division of labor takes place when the second generation is replacing the parents in migrant work. This research's findings support the notion that rural–urban migrants are fast becoming a hybrid segment of Chinese society, playing dual roles of farmers and urban workers and straddling the peasant and urban worlds.

Details

Work and Organizationsin China Afterthirty Years of Transition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-730-7

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Susana Caxaj, Amy Cohen and Sarah Marsden

This study aims to examine the role of support actors in promoting or hindering access to public services/spaces for migrant agricultural workers (MAWs) and to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of support actors in promoting or hindering access to public services/spaces for migrant agricultural workers (MAWs) and to determine the factors that influence adequate support for this population.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a situational analysis methodology, the authors carried out focus groups and interviews with 40 support actors complimented by a community scan (n = 28) with public-facing support persons and a community consultation with migrant farmworkers (MFWs) (n = 235).

Findings

Two major themes were revealed: (In)access and (In)action and Blurred Lines in Service Provision. The first illustrated how support actors could both reinforce or challenge barriers for this population through tensions of “Coping or Pushing Back on Constraints” and “Need to find them first!” Justification or Preparation? Blurred lines in Service Provision encompassed organizational/staff’s behaviors and contradictions that could hinder meaningful support for MFWs revealing two key tensions: “Protection or performance?” and “Contradicting or reconciling priorities? Our findings revealed a support system for MAWs still in its infancy, contending with difficult political and economic conditions.

Social implications

Service providers can use research findings to improve supports for MAWs. For example, addressing conflicts of interests in clinical encounters and identification of farms to inform adequate outreach strategies can contribute to more effective support for MAWs.

Originality/value

This research is novel in its examination of multiple sectors as well as its inclusion of both formal and informal actors involved in supporting MAWs. Our findings have the potential to inform more comprehensive readings of the health and social care resources available to MAWs.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2007

Ira N. Gang and Myeong-Su Yun

We review the role immigration amnesties have played in US immigration policy, placing them in the context of similar programs embarked upon by other nations. The theory…

Abstract

We review the role immigration amnesties have played in US immigration policy, placing them in the context of similar programs embarked upon by other nations. The theory of amnesties suggests rent-seeking, bargaining, and costs as reasons for a country offering an amnesty, often in conjunction with increased border controls, internal enforcement and employer penalties. We model an immigration amnesty in which the destination country has a formal sector employing only legal immigrants, an informal sector employing both legal and illegal immigrants, and open unemployment. The model focuses on the productivity enhancing effects of legalization, and establishes specific conditions under which unemployment, the informal sector and the formal sectors increase/decrease in size. Building on these insights, our empirical work examines Mexican migration to the US. We study who are migrants; among migrants, who are legalized via Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), and who are legalized via sponsorship of family or employer. Furthermore, to measure the impact of amnesty on welfare of migrants, we estimate earnings equations of various migrants groups.

Details

Immigration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1391-4

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