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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

J.P. Ramy, J. Guena and C. Thebault

Because of its lower dielectric constant and loss tangent, and its greater surface smoothness, fused silica is very suitable for use in the KU band and above, but its cost…

Abstract

Because of its lower dielectric constant and loss tangent, and its greater surface smoothness, fused silica is very suitable for use in the KU band and above, but its cost is very high. The purpose of this paper is therefore to select a new substrate which competes with fused silica on the grounds of lower cost; to adapt the hybrid technology to this new substrate; to show ,comparing the measured performances of a filter realised on fused silica and on this new substrate, that the latter is suitable for MICs in the wide band, but not in the narrow band; and to describe an application of this substrate in the 22–24 GHz band. Thus, after an investigation of the electrical parameters and of the costs of different substrates, Duroid was selected and compared with silica. This substrate is composed of a non‐woven glass microfibre reinforced by polytetrafluorethylene; its microwave quality is theoretically almost similar to that of the fused silica one but its cost is much lower. The adaptation of hybrid technology on this substrate, notably in order to use beam lead and die semiconductor components with thermocompression bonding as a connection method, involved the use of a copper foil laminated on Duroid. This paper describes the process that has been perfected: selective electroplating of gold on copper, compatibility of etching solutions of gold and copper, attachment and connection methods of semiconductors, substrate attachment in a package, etc. A comparison of the performances of a filter realised on fused silica and on Duroid gives the following conclusion: Duroid is suitable for wide band circuits, but not for narrow band circuits because of its instability under stress test temperatures (−20 to 80°). In this last case, silica will be preferred. A transmitter‐receiver in the 22–24 GHz band for radio links is described.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Dr Setty reports from ISHM‐India, who had their first committee meeting on the 4th October 1985, that the Society is now off the ground and that the Symposium on Hybrid…

Abstract

Dr Setty reports from ISHM‐India, who had their first committee meeting on the 4th October 1985, that the Society is now off the ground and that the Symposium on Hybrid Microelectronics held on February 5th attracted considerable interest, some 150 persons attending. Dr Sonde was the organising committee Chairman and was fortunate in being able to persuade the Department of Electrical Communication Engineering of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, which has set up its thin and thick film hybrid department, to host this important event. Papers were given by visiting speakers from the US, UK and West Germany as well as from India itself. Among the presentations given were papers introducing some of the country's facilities from which it can be seen that microelectronics has an important future here.

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Microelectronics International, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Beata Synkiewicz-Musialska

The purpose of this paper is to report on fabrication procedure and present microstructure and dielectric behavior of willemite ceramic material with addition of 5% Li2CO3

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on fabrication procedure and present microstructure and dielectric behavior of willemite ceramic material with addition of 5% Li2CO3 as a sintering aid.

Design/methodology/approach

The samples were fabricated by ball milling of the ceramic powders, preparation of granulate and pressing and co-firing using temperature profile based on heating microscope observation. The dielectric properties of the material were measured by impedance spectroscopy (Hz-MHz), transmission method (GHz) and time domain spectroscopy (THz). The composition and microstructure of the material were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Ceramic powder was used to fabricate a green tape and low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) multilayer structures, which in the next steps of the research were examined at the angle of cooperation with conductive pastes, strength and geometric repeatability.

Findings

The fabricated material showed low sintering temperature (920°C–960°C), low dielectric constant 6.2–6.34 and low dissipation factor at the level of 0.004–0.007. As LTCC material, willemite with 5% Li2CO3 addition showed good compatibility with AgPd conductive paste.

Originality/value

Search for new materials with low dielectric constant, applicable in LTCC technology, and development of their fabrication procedure are important tasks for the progress in modern microwave circuits.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Allen F. Horn, Patricia A. LaFrance, John W. Reynolds and John Coonrod

The purpose of this paper is to help high frequency circuit designers understand how to choose the best permittivity value for a laminate material for accurate modeling.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to help high frequency circuit designers understand how to choose the best permittivity value for a laminate material for accurate modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, experimental measurements of the performance of simple circuits are compared to various mathematical and software models.

Findings

Higher permittivity values were obtained using samples with bonded copper foil compared to samples etched free of foil. These higher values yielded better agreement between measured and modelled performance using current automated design software. High profile foil on thin laminates was found to increase the surface impedance of the conductor and change the propagation constant and apparent permittivity of the laminate by 15 percent or more. It was also demonstrated that, under some circumstances, the anisotropy of the substrate could result in differences in measured and modelled performance.

Research limitations/implications

Only a limited number of circuit laminate materials were closely examined. Future work should include a wider variety of laminates.

Originality/value

The paper details the magnitude of the effects of test method, conductor profile and substrate anisotropy on the values of a material's permittivity best suited for circuit design purposes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Alena Pietrikova, Tibor Rovensky, Juraj Durisin, Igor Vehec and Ondrej Kovac

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of various firing profiles on microstructural and dielectric properties of low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of various firing profiles on microstructural and dielectric properties of low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates in a GHz frequency range. According these analyses, sintering process can be controlled and modified to achieve better performance of devices fabricated from LTCC substrates.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples from LTCC substrates GreenTape 951 and GreenTape 9K7 were sintered by four firing profiles. Basic firing profile recommended by the manufacturer was modified by increasing the peak temperature or the dwell time at the peak temperature. The influence of firing profile on microstructural properties was analysed according to measurements by X-ray diffractometer (application of the Cu K-alpha radiation and the Bragg-Brentano method), and the influence on dielectric properties (dielectric constant and dielectric losses) was analysed according to measurements by split cylinder resonator method at 9.7 and 12.5 GHz.

Findings

Rising of the peak temperature or extension of dwell time at this temperature has influence on all analysed properties of LTCC substrates. Size of crystallites can be changed by modification of firing profile as well as microdeformation. In addition, dielectric properties can be changed too by modification of the firing profile. Correlation between microdeformation and dielectric losses was observed.

Originality/value

The novelty of this work lies in finding the mutual relationship between changes in microstructural (size of grains and microdeformation) and dielectric properties (dielectric constant and dielectric losses) caused by different firing profiles.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

K. Jayaraj, T.E. Noll and K. Blizard

L iguid crystal polymer(LCP) dielectric materials have been used to fabricate surface mount PWBs with acoefficient of thermal expansion matched to leadless ceramic chip…

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Abstract

L iguid crystal polymer (LCP) dielectric materials have been used to fabricate surface mount PWBs with a coefficient of thermal expansion matched to leadless ceramic chip carriers. Proprietary and patented polymer processing technology results in self‐reinforcing material with balanced in‐plane mechanical properties. In addition, LCPs possess excellent electrical properties, including a low dielectric constant (∼3) and very low moisture absorption (< 0.02 %). Laser drilling of blind vias in the LCP dielectric provides a very high density for use in direct chip attach and area array packages. Modelling indicates that the high out‐of‐plane CTE of LCPs does not affect the reliability of the plated‐through‐holes vias. RF characterisation indicates that the material is suitable up to very high frequencies. The material is ideally suited to MCM‐L and PCMCIA applications involving very thin dielectric layers of the LCP.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

J.R. Tyler and D.K. Andrade

Recent developments in microwave GaAs technology are yielding devices with higher power capabilities and increased levels of integration. The mechanical and thermal…

Abstract

Recent developments in microwave GaAs technology are yielding devices with higher power capabilities and increased levels of integration. The mechanical and thermal properties of GaAs and other microwave materials play a key role in the design and assembly of microwave power circuits. Thermal management is a critical element of microwave power circuit design. Thermal properties of microwave materials are discussed and compared with standard microelectronic materials. Material selection criteria are described. Assembly and packaging techniques also affect the overall performance of the GaAs power circuit. The high operating frequencies of microwave circuits make ordinary circuit elements, such as wire bonds and printed conductors, reactive. In addition, electrical performance criteria, such as high current or low impedance, create unique assembly demands. The successful development of a GaAs‐based microwave product is dependent on careful attention to the material properties and precise assembly methods. Techniques of automated assembly and processing are discussed, with ah eye towards maintaining high quality and reliability.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

N. Patil, N.B. Velhal, R. Pawar and Vijaya Puri

The purpose of this article is to study the effect of ferrite content on electric, magnetic and microwave properties of screen-printed y(Ni0.4Co0.2Cd0.4Fe2O4) + (1 …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to study the effect of ferrite content on electric, magnetic and microwave properties of screen-printed y(Ni0.4Co0.2Cd0.4Fe2O4) + (1 − y)Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (y = 0.0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 1.0) thick films on alumina.

Design/methodology/approach

Thick films of ferrite–ferroelectric composite on alumina substrate have been delineated using screen printing technique. The structural analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy. The DC electrical resistivity was measured using the two-probe method. The magnetic measurement was carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Microwave absorption was studied in the 8-18 GHz frequency range by using the vector network analyzer (N5230A). The permittivity in the 8-18 GHz frequency range was measured by using voltage standing wave ratio slotted section method.

Findings

The formation of two individual ferrite–ferroelectric phases in composite thick films was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction patterns. The scanning electron microscope morphologies show the growth of cobalt-substituted nickel cadmium ferrite grains which are well dispersed in lead zirconium titanate matrix. The DC electrical resistivity increases with increase in ferrite content and decreases with increase in temperature. The present ferrite shows ferromagnetic nature and it increases saturation magnetization and coercivity of the composite thick films. Tuning properties are observed in the Ku-band and broadband X-band microwave absorption is observed in the composite thick films. The imaginary part of permittivity increases with an increase in ferrite content, which increases microwave absorption. The real part of microwave permittivity varied from 17 to around 22 with an increase in ferrite content and it decreases with frequency. The microwave conductivity, which increases with an increase in ferrite content, reveals the loss of polaron conduction, which supports the dielectric loss in the microwave region.

Originality/value

Electric, magnetic and microwave properties of screen-printed y(Ni0.4Co0.2Cd0.4Fe2O4) + (1 − y)Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (y = 0.0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 1.0) composite thick films on alumina substrate is reported for the first time.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

A. Giavarini, G.P. Ferraris and F. Marconi

A line of thin film microwave integrated circuits (MICs) on alumina substrate in the microwave frequency range up to 20 GHz is presented. Technological aspects and…

Abstract

A line of thin film microwave integrated circuits (MICs) on alumina substrate in the microwave frequency range up to 20 GHz is presented. Technological aspects and electrical performances are shown.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Beata Barteczka, Piotr Slobodzian, Arkadiusz Dabrowski and Leszek Golonka

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of non-uniform temperature distribution inside a box furnace during the firing process on electrical properties…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of non-uniform temperature distribution inside a box furnace during the firing process on electrical properties of the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) materials used in radio frequency (RF)/microwave applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors studied the change in dielectric constant of two popular LTCC materials (DP 951 and DP 9K7) depending on the position of their samples inside the box furnace. Before firing of the samples, temperature distribution inside the box furnace was determined. The dielectric constant was measured using the method of two microstrip lines.

Findings

The findings showed that non-uniform temperature distribution with spatial difference of 6°C can result in 3-4 per cent change of the dielectric constant. It was also found that dielectric constant of the two tested materials shows disparate behavior under the same temperature distribution inside the box furnace.

Practical implications

The dielectric constant of the substrate materials is crucial for RF/microwave applications. Therefore, it was shown that 3-4 per cent deviation in dielectric constant can result in considerable detuning of microwave circuits and antennas.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the quantitative description of the impact of temperature distribution inside a box furnace on electrical properties of the LTCC materials has never been published in the open literature. The findings should be helpful when optimizing production process for high yield of reliable LTCC components like filters, baluns and chip antennas.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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