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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Gulcin Yildiz

This work was undertaken to evaluate the impact of different drying methods (convective, microwave and freeze drying) on color, selected secondary metabolites (total…

Abstract

Purpose

This work was undertaken to evaluate the impact of different drying methods (convective, microwave and freeze drying) on color, selected secondary metabolites (total phenolic substances, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and antioxidant capacity), texture (hardness), sensory properties and microstructure of carrot slices.

Design/methodology/approach

Convective drying at three different temperatures (55, 65 and 75 °C), microwave drying at two different power levels (100 and 200 W) and freeze drying were applied.

Findings

Significant differences were found among fresh and dried-carrot slices. Convective-dried carrots showed better quality characteristics in comparison with microwave-dried carrots. The convective-dried carrots at 65 °C exhibited the highest retention of bioactive compounds and best color among all convective drying conditions. The microwave-dried carrot slices at lower power (100 W) showed higher quality characteristics compared to the dried carrots at 200 W. The freeze-dried carrots exhibited the highest retention of secondary metabolites, sensory properties and best color among all drying methods.

Originality/value

The results from this study are significant for the processing of dried carrots by optimizing the conditions to obtain a high-quality product. Overall, freeze drying is a promising application as shown in the present study by its capability to better retention carrot quality underlying color, sensory, texture, microstructure and secondary metabolites.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Sena Özbay and Cemalettin Sariçoban

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the different levels of salt and the temperature on some physico-chemical and colour change properties of microwave-dried

385

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the different levels of salt and the temperature on some physico-chemical and colour change properties of microwave-dried beef round (M. semitendinosus).

Design/methodology/approach

The samples were pretreated with different temperatures (0°C, 40°C and 50°C) and salting (0, 1.5, 2.5%). Later these samples have been dried by the microwave energy at 540 W for seven minutes. Some physical properties (water activity, moisture content, change in diameter, change in thickness, change in shrinkage ratio) and texture, colour and microscopic surface structure analysis were conducted in dried beef round samples.

Findings

As a result, the colour and moisture were the most affected factors. Also, physical and microstructural characteristics were affected by salting and pre-drying. In addition, while the textural structure did not show a significant difference, meat weight and water activity varied.

Research limitations/implications

Meat obtained from a local butcher in Konya was used as the study material. In addition, only a special part of the meat (M. semitendinosus) was used in the study. In the drying process, the parameters were determined as 540 W and 7 min. These are the limitations of the research.

Originality/value

All changes that can occur in the physical properties of the meat after the drying process were examined. The structure of beef round samples formed by microwave drying was shown by using electron microscope. The effects of pretreatment such as salting and pre-drying have been examined on microwave drying.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Mahmoud Sowti Khiabani, Zohreh Hamidi Esfahani, Mohammad‐Hossein Azizi and Mohammad Ali Sahari

Carotenoids have been extensively used in many industries owing to their colorant and strong antioxidant properties. Because of their useful properties, the purpose of…

288

Abstract

Purpose

Carotenoids have been extensively used in many industries owing to their colorant and strong antioxidant properties. Because of their useful properties, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of penicillin‐adding time on stimulation of carotenoid production by Neurospora intermedia, and the effect of drying methods on stability of synthesized carotenoids.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first stage, curve of growth kinetic of cultures incubated at 31°C and different times (24, 48, 72, 80, 96, 104, 112, 120, 128, 136 and 144 h) to determine log and stationary phases was depicted. Then penicillin (1 mg/l) at initial and middle of log phase and initial of stationary phase was applied and its effect on carotenoid production was evaluated. In the second stage, mycelia containing carotenoid were dried by microwave oven, vacuum microwave, vacuum oven and freeze drier. Thereafter, effect of drying methods applied on stability of synthesized carotenoid was determined.

Findings

The results showed that penicillin could stimulate carotenoid biosynthesis in N. intermedia. Furthermore, this study indicated that the best time of penicillin adding is middle of log phase or after this time. Also the study indicated that there was a significant difference among applied methods as microwavedried mycelium had the highest carotenoid contents in comparison to the other drying methods.

Originality/value

This paper is believed to be the only one which investigates the effect of different factors on stimulate and stability of synthesized carotenoid by N. intermedia. Also mycelia containing carotenoid were dried by using new drying methods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Anju Sangwan, Asha Kawatra and Salil Sehgal

The purpose of this paper is to standardize the technique for the development of mint leaves powder. The effect of different drying methods on nutrient composition of mint…

502

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to standardize the technique for the development of mint leaves powder. The effect of different drying methods on nutrient composition of mint leaves powder is studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The mint leaves powders were analyzed for the proximate composition, namely protein, crude fibre, fat, ash and moisture. Minerals, β‐carotene, ascorbic acid and polyphenol were estimated by employing standard techniques. Data thus obtained were subjected to analysis of complete randomized design and factorial complete randomized design. Sensory analysis was carried out using nine‐point hedonic scales by the panel of judges.

Findings

It was found that mint leaves powder prepared from the shade dried method had better nutritional and sensory profiles.

Originality/value

The paper shows that these developed powders could be easily stored and used in the off season at remunerative prices.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Osman İsmail and Özlem Gökçe Kocabay

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the different temperatures on drying kinetics and quality parameters of vacuum oven-dried mediterranean or black mussel …

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this work was to study the effect of the different temperatures on drying kinetics and quality parameters of vacuum oven-dried mediterranean or black mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) specimens.

Design/methodology/approach

Drying process was performed at 50, 60 and 70 °C and a vacuum drying pressure of 0.1 kPa. The proximate composition analysis was done. Drying rates of the mussels were computed. Mathematical modeling was carried out. Effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy and total energy consumption were calculated. Color measurement was conducted.

Findings

Drying took place entirely in the falling rate period. The obtained results indicated that the drying air temperature has a remarkable influence on the moisture content and drying rate. Drying resulted in a significant increasing of protein and fat content. The Deff values ranged from 1.44 × 10−9–3.23 × 10−9 m2/s, with the activation energy 4.47 kW kg−1. The Alibas model is the most proper model to define the drying curves. This method provided high energy efficiency and quality in dried products.

Research limitations/implications

Fresh mussels grown in Eceabat location were used as the study sample. In the drying process, 50, 60, 70 °C temperatures and 0.1 kPa pressure was used. These are the limitations of the research.

Originality/value

This work is the first to report the influence of vacuum oven drying on the color changes and drying kinetics of black mussels.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Shaffic Ssenyimba, Julia Kigozi, Peter Tumutegyereize, John H. Muyonga and Raymonds Mutumba

Refractance window drying (RWD) has been identified as the method that can give high-quality products at a relatively low production cost. However, knowledge about its use…

Abstract

Purpose

Refractance window drying (RWD) has been identified as the method that can give high-quality products at a relatively low production cost. However, knowledge about its use and adoption remains lacking both in academic curricula and industry in the developing world.

Design/methodology/approach

A lab-scale batch RWD of a closed-loop control system was designed, fabricated and evaluated for drying rates, evaporation rate, the energy of evaporation, energy efficiency and throughput. Testing was done using mango and tomato pulps.

Findings

Drying rates at 95°C of 1.32 gg−1min−1 and 0.854 gg−1min−1 at 2 and 3 mm, respectively, for tomato, 0.6 gg−1min−1 and 0.33 gg−1min−1 at 2 and 3 mm for mango pulp were obtained. The dryer had an evaporation rate of 4.63 × 10–4 kg/s and 4.25 × 10–4 kg/s, the energy of evaporation of 1.05 kW and 0.96 kW and thermal energy efficiency of 25.64% and 21.73% while drying tomato and mango pulps, respectively. Dryer throughput of 0.6 kg/h of dried mango Pulp and 0.47 kg/h of dried tomato pulp was obtained.

Originality/value

The designed RWD can be adequately used in laboratory experiments on different products to produce powders. This will enable the transfer of knowledge about RWD technology in developing countries.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Ashlesha Ranade, Pradeep Kumar Singh and Neeraj Shrivastav

This study aims to have a product with enhanced shelf stability from the Kadaknath bird. It is localized to its native tract in India and is unknown to a major part of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to have a product with enhanced shelf stability from the Kadaknath bird. It is localized to its native tract in India and is unknown to a major part of the world. As in tropical countries, the meat products prepared have limited shelf-life and restricted market access, hence, the pickle was developed to enhance its access to areas other than a native tract of Kadaknath.

Design/methodology/approach

The product was developed to assess the effect of cooking and dehydration on sensory and microbial features while enhancing shelf stability. A comparison between cooking methods i.e. steam cooking (SC) and microwave cooking (MC) followed by dehydration to get steam cooked + dehydration (SCD) and microwave cooked + dehydration (MCD) were subjected for the study.

Findings

The study revealed that sensory evaluation, from 0 to 100 days, for all the sensory parameters indicated that SC and MC samples scored more values than SCD and MCD, however, with the storage the values increased initially on the 20th day followed by a gradual decrease. The total plate count (colony forming unit) on 0 day for SC and MC were 2.51 and 2.46, whereas for SCD and MCD the values were 1.94 and 1.98, respectively, indicating significantly (P = 0.01) lower values in dehydrated meat pickle preparations (SCD and MCD) in comparison to samples prepared without dehydration (SC and MC). Similarly, on the 60th day, the meat pickle treatments mentioned as SC and MC had the yeast and mold counts (colony forming unit) detected as 1.79 and 1.88, respectively, however, the organisms were not detectable in treatments SCD and MCD.

Practical implications

Developed product may be suitable for long distance marketing and making the local delicacy available to distant places.

Originality/value

The literature review indicated that though meat pickles have been prepared earlier most of the preparations involved chemical preservatives/antioxidants and trials with hurdles such as dehydration and cooking variations were scanty.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Yaping Dai and Kaibo Deng

To reduce energy consumption, the time needed of drying, and the loss of ß-carotene content, and ascorbic acid content, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for…

Abstract

Purpose

To reduce energy consumption, the time needed of drying, and the loss of ß-carotene content, and ascorbic acid content, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for optimization.

Design/methodology/approach

To reduce energy consumption, the time needed of drying, and the loss of ß-carotene content, and ascorbic acid content, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for optimization.

Findings

The results show that the optimum solar-assisted heat pump drying (SAHPD) conditions for drying pumpkin slice were: drying temperature of 67.40 °C, loading density of 1.05 kg/m3, and material thickness of 4 mm. Under these conditions, slice of pumpkin were dried in 440.637 min, where the unit energy consumption, ascorbic acid content, and ß-carotene content were 16.737 kJ/g, 25.682 mg/ (100–g dried sample), and 10.202 mg/g, respectively. The structure of the samples dried using the optimized SAHPD method exhibited a more complete cell morphology than those dried using heat pump drying when examined using scanning electronic microscopy.

Originality/value

This suggests that the optimized SAHPD conditions used in this study are important for production and processing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Daiane Costa dos Santos, Josemar Gonçalves de Oliveira Filho, Jhessika de Santana Silva, Milena Figueiredo de Sousa, Marcio da Silva Vilela, Marco Antonio Pereira da Silva, Ailton Cesar Lemes and Mariana Buranelo Egea

Okara, which is the residue of hydrosoluble extract from soybean obtained after soymilk and tofu production, has high nutritional value and can be used for ingredient in…

Abstract

Purpose

Okara, which is the residue of hydrosoluble extract from soybean obtained after soymilk and tofu production, has high nutritional value and can be used for ingredient in specific food products. This study aims to evaluate the production and properties (physicochemical, microscopical and functional ones) of okara flour (OF) obtained from okara as a by-product of soymilk and tofu production.

Design/methodology/approach

Wet okara resulted from the soymilk process underwent convective drying up to reach mass stability (60°C for 12 h). OF properties were analyzed by official methods by AOAC, i.e. mineral composition was evaluated by atomic absorption equipment; color; water absorption index (WAI); milk absorption index (MAI); oil absorption capacity (OAC); and foam capacity (FC) required mixtures with water, milk and oil, separation and gravimetry, respectively; and microstructure was determined by a scanning electron microscope.

Findings

Results showed the potential OF has as a source of protein (24.74 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (58.27 g/100 g). Regarding its color after the drying process, OF was markedly yellow (b* parameter 20.16). Its WAI was 3.62 g/g, MAI was 4.33 g/g, OAC was 3.68 g/g and FC was 1.32 per cent. The microscopic analysis of OF showed that both loose and agglomerated particles had irregular structures and indefinite forms.

Originality/value

Production of flour from wet okara can be an alternative use of this by-product. This study showed important characteristics of OF and its possible application to the food industry. Thus, OF was shown as a potential ingredient with high nutritional value.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Kh M. Mostafa and A.A. El-Sanabary

This study aims to use multi-functional viscose fabric that was facilely developed with with respect to ease and care characteristics, reinforcement effect and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use multi-functional viscose fabric that was facilely developed with with respect to ease and care characteristics, reinforcement effect and antibacterial activity by using novel echo friendly antibacterial finish based on citric acid/sodium hypophosphite and the authors’ previously tailor-made poly meth acrylic acid (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer via alternative microwave curing approach instead of traditional high-temperature cure one.

Design/methodology/approach

Viscose fabric was paddled twice in the cross-linking formulations containing different concentrations of citric acid, poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer and sodium hypophosphite to 90 % wet pick up and dried at 100°C for 3 min in an electric oven. Then, the treated fabrics were placed on the disk spinner of the microwave oven and cured at different power (100–800 Watt) for various durations (60–180 s). The fabric was then water-rinsed and dried at ambient condition before use.

Findings

Results revealed that the above echo friendly method for finished viscose fabrics was found to achieve relatively high dry wrinkle recovery angle and maintain the loss in tensile strength within the acceptable range, as well as antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as a gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively; in addition to durability up to ten washing cycles. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images, nitrogen content and add on % of the finished fabric confirmed the penetration of grafted chitosan inside the fabric structure. The tentative mechanism for these reactions is advocated.

Originality/value

The novelty addressed here is undertaken with the advantages of using citric acid as a nonformaldehyde, safe and cheap poly carboxylic acid as a crosslinking agent and sodium hypophosphite as a potential catalyst, in addition to the authors’ noncitable multifunctional echo friendly tailor-made poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer for imparting reinforcement and antibacterial characteristics to viscose fabric that uses the pad-dry/cure microwave fixation for progressively persuaded heat within the fabric during curing.

Research limitations/implications

This was done to see the impact of microwave as green and efficient tool with respect to reduction in organic solvents, chemicals and exposer time as well as fixation temperature on the finishing reaction in comparison with traditional pad-dry-cure method.

Practical implications

Poly (MAA)-chitosan graft copolymer as amphoteric biopolymer was expected to impart multifunctional properties to viscose fabrics especially with comparable dry wrinkle recovery angle and minimize the loss in tensile strength in addition to antibacterial properties in comparison with untreated one.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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