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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Y. Wei, C.L. Chow, H.E. Fang, W.Y. Lu and J. Lim

This paper aims to present a viscoplastic constitutive model of Sn‐Pb solder taking into account the evolution of microstructure and damage growth in the material.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a viscoplastic constitutive model of Sn‐Pb solder taking into account the evolution of microstructure and damage growth in the material.

Design/methodology/approach

The microstructure evolution is represented by a parameter describing the coarsening of the phase size, and its resulting evolution equation is established from previous experimental data. The damage evolution is derived from the theory of damage mechanics within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Both a phase‐size parameter and a damage variable are included in the constitutive model.

Findings

The model is capable of simulating the effects of Sn‐Pb solder microstructure on mechanical behaviour for both bulk material and miniature specimens under monotonic tensile loading. It was found that the expected failure location determined using the phase‐size criterion is identical to that using the damage criterion, but differs from that determined using the von Mises stress criterion.

Originality/value

Microstructure and damage evolution are modelled for Sn‐Pb solder. Some simulation results are compared with the experimental data to provide the necessary validation of the damage/microstructure‐coupled constitutive model.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Bo Chen, Yuhua Huang, Tao Gu, Caiwang Tan and Jicai Feng

Additive manufacturing is a fabrication technology with flexibility and economy. 18Ni300 is one of maraging steels with ultra-high strength, superior toughness, so it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing is a fabrication technology with flexibility and economy. 18Ni300 is one of maraging steels with ultra-high strength, superior toughness, so it is an excellent candidate of structural material. This paper aims to explore the feasibility of using direct laser metal deposition method to fabricate18Ni300, and the evolution of its microstructure and defects is studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiments were conceived from single-trace-single-layer (STSL) test to multi-trace-multi-layers (MTML) test via single-trace-multi-layers (STML) test. The microstructure, defects and mechanical properties were analyzed.

Findings

The STML results showed that the columnar/equiaxed transformation occurred at the top part and the grain size increased with the layer number increasing, and it was explained by an innovative attempt combining columnar/equiaxed transformation model and the change of grain size. The MTML test with the interlayer orthogonal parallel reciprocating scanning pattern resulted in the grain growing along orthogonal directions; with the increase of overlap rate, the length and the area of the columnar grain decreased. What is more, the later deposition layer had lower micro-hardness value because of heat history.

Originality/value

Direct laser metal deposition method was a novel additive manufacturing method to manufacture 18Ni300 components, as 18Ni300 maraging steel was mainly manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) method nowadays. It was useful to manufacture maraging steel parts using direct laser deposition method because it could manufacture larger parts than SLM method. Influence of processing parameters on forming quality and microstructure evolution was studied. The findings will be helpful to understand the forming mechanism of laser additive manufacturing of 18Ni300 components.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Janmejay Dattatraya Kulkarni, Suresh Babu Goka, Pradeep Kumar Parchuri, Hajime Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Ito and Suryakumar Simhambhatla

The use of a gas metal arc welding-based weld-deposition, referred to as wire-direct energy deposition or wire-arc additive manufacturing, is one of the notable additive…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of a gas metal arc welding-based weld-deposition, referred to as wire-direct energy deposition or wire-arc additive manufacturing, is one of the notable additive manufacturing methods for producing metallic components at high deposition rates. In this method, the near-net shape is manufactured through layer-by-layer weld-deposition on a substrate. However, as a result of this sequential weld-deposition, different layers are subjected to different types of thermal cycles and partial re-melting. The resulting microstructural evolution of the material may not be uniform. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess microstructure variation along with the lamination direction (or build direction).

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out for two different boundary conditions, namely, isolated condition and cooled condition. The microstructural evolution across the layers is hypothesized based on experimental assessment; this included microhardness, scanning electron microscopy imaging and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. These conditions subsequently collaborated with the help of thermal modeling of the process.

Findings

During a new layer deposition, the previous layer also is subject to re-melt. While the newly added layer undergoes rapid cooling through a combination of convection, conduction and radiation losses, the penultimate layer, sees a slower cooling curve due to its smaller exposure area. This behavior of rapid-solidification and subsequent re-melting and re-solidification is a progressing phenomenon across the layers and the bulk of the layers have uniform grains due to this remelt-re-solidification phenomenon.

Research limitations/implications

This paper studies the microstructure variation along with the build direction for thin-walled components fabricated through weld-deposition. This study would be helpful in addressing the issue of anisotropy resulting from the distinctive thermal history of each layer in the overall theme of metal additive manufacturing.

Originality/value

The unique aspect of this paper is the postulation of a generic hypothesis, based on experimental findings and supported by thermal modeling of the process, for remelt-re-solidification phenomenon followed by temperature raising/lowering repetitively in every layer deposition across the layers. This is implemented for different types of base plate conditions, revealing the role of boundary conditions on the microstructure evolution.

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

Łukasz Łach and Dmytro Svyetlichnyy

Some functional properties of engineering materials, i.e. physical, mechanical and thermal ones, depend directly on the microstructure, which is a result of processes…

Abstract

Purpose

Some functional properties of engineering materials, i.e. physical, mechanical and thermal ones, depend directly on the microstructure, which is a result of processes occurring in the material during the forming and thermomechanical processing. The proper microstructure can be obtained in many cases by the phase transformation. This phenomenon is one of the most important processes during hot forming and heat treatment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new comprehensive hybrid model for modeling diffusion phase transformations. A problem has been divided into several tasks and is carried out on several stages. The purpose of this stage is a development of the structure of a hybrid model, development of an algorithm used in the diffusion module and one-dimensional heat flow and diffusion modeling. Generally, the processes of phase transformations are studied well enough but there are not many tools for their complex simulations. The problems of phase transformation simulation are related to the proper consideration of diffusion, movement of phase boundaries and kinetics of transformation. The proposed new model at the final stage of development will take into account the varying grain growth rate, different shape of growing grains and will allow for proper modeling of heat flow and carbon diffusion during the transformation in many processes, where heating, annealing and cooling can be considered (e.g. homogenizing and normalizing).

Design/methodology/approach

One of the most suitable methods for modeling of microstructure evolution during the phase transformation is cellular automata (CA), while lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) suits for modeling of diffusion and heat flow. Then, the proposed new hybrid model is based on CA and LBM methods and uses high performing parallel computations.

Findings

The first simulation results obtained for one-dimensional modeling confirm the correctness of interaction between LBM and CA in common numerical solution and the possibility of using these methods for modeling of phase transformations. The advantages of the LBM method can be used for the simulation of heat flow and diffusion during the transformation taking into account the results obtained from the simulations. LBM creates completely new possibilities for modeling of phase transformations in combination with CA.

Practical implications

The studies are focused on diffusion phase transformations in solid state in condition of low cooling rate (e.g. transformation of austenite into ferrite and pearlite) and during the heating and annealing (e.g. transformation of the ferrite-pearlite structure into austenite, the alignment of carbon concentration in austenite and growth of austenite grains) in carbon steels within a wide range of carbon content. The paper presents the comprehensive modeling system, which can operate with the technological processes with phase transformation during heating, annealing or cooling.

Originality/value

A brief review of the modeling of phase transformations and a description of the structure of a new CA and LBM hybrid model and its modules are presented in the paper. In the first stage of model implementation, the one-dimensional LBM model of diffusion and heat flow was developed. The examples of simulation results for several variants of modeling with different boundary conditions are shown.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Peng Zhu, Shuang Liang, Yudan Yang, Xicheng Wei and Wurong Wang

This paper aims to investigate the correlation between wear behavior and microstructure evolution in friction-induced deformation layers (FDL) of 30CrMnSi steel…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the correlation between wear behavior and microstructure evolution in friction-induced deformation layers (FDL) of 30CrMnSi steel, especially the role of strain-hardening induced by plastic deformation in FDL, which accordingly alters the wear behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Dry sliding friction and wear behaviors of the 30CrMnSi steel against quenched and tempered GCr15 steel were studied using a pin-on-disc tester. The microstructure, hardness and plastic deformation of FDL were investigated.

Findings

It was found that the evolution of microstructure and strain-hardening induced by plastic deformation were occurred in the subsurface. When the microstructure, hardness and depth of the plastic deformation layer (PDL) reached a relatively steady state, the friction process transformed into stable-state stage. The wear loss and depth of the PDL was in dynamic equilibrium at stable wear stage.

Originality/value

In this paper, the correlation among the microstructure evolution, the strain-hardening and wear behavior were systemically analyzed. This paper could provide a theoretical reference for optimizing the microstructure and strain hardening properties of tribo-pairs materials.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Łukasz Łach, Dmytro Svyetlichnyy and Robert Straka

A fundamental principle of materials engineering is that the microstructure of a material controls the properties. The phase transformation is an important phenomenon that…

Abstract

Purpose

A fundamental principle of materials engineering is that the microstructure of a material controls the properties. The phase transformation is an important phenomenon that determines the final microstructure. Recently, many analytical and numerical methods were used for modeling of phase transformation, but some limitations can be seen in relation to the choice of the shape of growing grains, introduction of varying grain growth rate and modeling of diffusion phenomena. There are also only few comprehensive studies that combine the final microstructure with the actual conditions of its formation. Therefore, the objective of the work is a development of a new hybrid model based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and cellular automata (CA) for modeling of the diffusional phase transformations. The model has a modular structure and simulates three basic phenomena: carbon diffusion, heat flow and phase transformation. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of heat flow with consideration of enthalpy of transformation as one of the most important parts of the proposed new hybrid model. This is one of the stages in the development of the complex model, and the obtained results will be used in a combined solution of heat flow and carbon diffusion during the modeling of diffusion phase transformations.

Design/methodology/approach

Different values of overheating/overcooling affect different values in the enthalpy of transformation and thus the rate of transformation. CA and LBM are used in the hybrid model in part related to heat flow. LBM is used for modeling of heat flow, while CA is used for modeling of the microstructure evolution during the phase transformation.

Findings

The use of LBM and CA in one numerical solution creates completely new possibilities for modeling of phase transformations. CA and LBM in comparison with commonly used approaches significantly simplify interface and interaction between different parts of the model, which operates in a common domain. The CA can be used practically for all possible processes that consist of nucleation and grains growth. The advantages of the LBM method can be well used for the simulation of heat flow during the transformation, which is confirmed by numerical results.

Practical implications

The developed heat flow model will be combined with the carbon diffusion model at the next stage of work, and the new complex hybrid model at the final stage will provide new solutions in numerical simulation of phase transformations and will allow comprehensive modeling of the diffusional phase transformations in many processes. Heating, annealing and cooling can be considered.

Originality/value

The paper presents the developed model of heat flow (temperature module), which is one of the main parts of the new hybrid model devoted to modeling of phase transformation. The model takes into account the enthalpy of transformation, and the connection with the model of microstructure evolution was obtained.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Riaz Muhammad and Umair Ali

This paper aims to analyze the effect of cerium addition on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Tin-Silver-Copper (SAC) alloy. The mechanical properties…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the effect of cerium addition on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Tin-Silver-Copper (SAC) alloy. The mechanical properties and refined microstructure of a solder joint are vital for the reliability and performance of electronics. SAC305 alloys are potential choices to use as lead-free solders because of their good properties as compared to the conventional Tin-Lead solder alloys. However, the presence of bulk intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the microstructure of SAC305 alloys affects their overall performance. Therefore, addition of cerium restrains the growth of IMCs and refines the microstructure, hence improving the mechanical performance.

Design/methodology/approach

SAC305 alloy is doped with various composition of xCerium (x = 0.15, 0.35, 0.55, 0.75, 0.95) % by weight. Pure elements in powdered form were melted in the presence of argon with periodic stirring to ensure a uniform melted alloy. The molten alloy is then poured into a pre-heated die to obtain a tensile specimen. The yield strength and universal tensile strength were determined using a fixed strain rate of 10 mm per minute or 0.1667 mm s^(−1). The IMCs are identified using X-ray diffraction, whereas the elemental phase composition and microstructure evolution are, respectively, examined by using electron dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

Improvement in the microstructure and mechanical properties is observed with 0.15% of cerium additions. The tensile test also showed that SAC305-0.15% cerium exhibits more stress-bearing capacity than other compositions. The 0.75% cerium doped alloy indicated some improvement because of a decrease in fracture dislocation regions, but microstructure refinement and the arrangement of IMCs are not those of 0.15% Ce. Different phases of Cu_6 Sn_5, Ag_3 Sn and CeSn_3 and ß-Sn are identified. Therefore, the addition of cerium in lower concentrations and presence of Ce-Sn IMCs improved the grain boundary structure and resulted refinement in the microstructure of the alloy, as well as an enhancement in the mechanical properties.

Originality/value

Characterization of microstructure and evaluation of mechanical properties are carried out to investigate the different composition of SAC305-xCerium alloys. Finally, an optimized cerium composition is selected for solder joint in electronics.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Romy Francis, Joseph Newkirk and Frank Liou

This paper aims to summarize the microstructure characterization of parts that were produced using a hybrid manufacturing process consisting of laser metal deposition…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarize the microstructure characterization of parts that were produced using a hybrid manufacturing process consisting of laser metal deposition (LMD) and friction stir processing (FSP). This research was conducted to investigate the evolution of the microstructure following FSP and LMD and to study the possibility of producing or repairing parts with a forged-like microstructure using this hybrid technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The microstructure of the nugget regions obtained in the substrate weld, stir over deposit and deposit over stir experiments was investigated.

Findings

Highly refined grain size in the order of 1-2 μm was observed where FSP was performed over laser-deposited Ti–6Al–4V. Large equiaxed grains were observed in the experiment where subsequent deposition was carried over the stir. A decreasing grain size was also observed in the dilution zone (DZ) inside the nugget from the stir surface to the bottom of the DZ.

Practical implications

A highly refined microstructure formed from FSP is able to increase the fatigue life by delaying the fatigue crack initiation. Peters et al. (1980) reported that reducing the grain size from 12-15 μm to 1-2 μm in an equiaxed Ti–6Al–4V alloy corresponded with about 25 per cent increase in fatigue strengths at 10,000,000 cycles.

Originality/value

This proposed technical approach is a novel and effective method to produce forged-like parts using a metal additive manufacturing process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Carina Morando and Osvaldo Fornaro

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a study of the evolution of the microstructure and the microhardness of Sn-Cu-Ag alloys from as-cast condition and under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to carry out a study of the evolution of the microstructure and the microhardness of Sn-Cu-Ag alloys from as-cast condition and under artificial isothermal aging at different temperatures (100ºC and 180ºC) for a treatment time up to 500 h. A comparison with Sn-37% Pb eutectic solder samples was also made.

Design/methodology/approach

Sn-3.5%Ag, Sn-0.7%Cu and Sn-3.5%Ag-0.9%Cu were poured in two different cooling rate conditions and then aged at 100ºC (373ºK) and 180 °C (453ºK) during 500 h. Microstructural changes were observed by optical microscopy, scanning electron micrograph and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Differential scanning calorimetry technique (DSC) was also used to confirm the obtained results.

Findings

A decrease up to 20% in microhardness respect to the value of the as-cast alloy was observed for both aging temperatures. These changes can be explained considering the coarsening and recrystallization of Sn dendrites present in the microstructures of all the systems studied.

Originality/value

There is no evidence of dissolution or precipitation of new phases in the range of studied temperatures that could be detected by DSC calorimetry technique. The acting mechanisms must be the result of coarsening of Sn dendrites and the residual stresses relaxation during the first stages of the isothermal aging.

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2008

Ben Q. Li

The aim of this paper is to determine a parallel computational methodology for simultaneously predicting the macro/micro scale phenomena occurring during solidification…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to determine a parallel computational methodology for simultaneously predicting the macro/micro scale phenomena occurring during solidification processing with external electromagnetic stirring.

Design/methodology/approach

Macro and micro phenomena occurring in an electromagnetically‐stirred solidifying melt are simulated using a numerical model that integrates the finite element methodology for transport phenomena and the Monte‐Carlo cellular‐automata method for microstructure formation. Parallel algorithm is introduced to enhance the computational efficiency.

Findings

Computed results show that parallel algorithm can be effective in enhancing the computational efficiency of a combined macro/micro model if it is applied appropriately. Also, electromagnetically induced stirring can have a strong effect on the nucleation and grain growth and hence the final solidification microstructure.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a need for developing an efficient numerical methodology to simulate complex electromagnetically‐assisted transport phenomena and microstructure formation during solidification processing systems.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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