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Article

A. Elshabini‐Riad and D.J. Moore

The Hybrid Microelectronics Laboratory in the Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI & SU), also named…

Abstract

The Hybrid Microelectronics Laboratory in the Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI & SU), also named Virginia Tech, was established during the 1979–1980 academic year in order to provide classroom/laboratory instruction and research capabilities in the area of hybrid microelectronics. The laboratory was initially designed for the hybrid and thick film areas of microelectronics. Thin film design and fabrication capability was added in the Fall Semester, 1987. Currently, efforts are under way to develop the area of monolithic diffusion and processing of semiconductor wafers using both elemental and compound materials, initiated in the Fall Semester, 1991.

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Microelectronics International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Abstract

The Center for Industrial Research (SI), the University of Oslo (UiO) and a group of Norwegian companies have collaborated between 1990 and 1992 in the research programme ‘Industrial Microelectronics’ with a total cost of 30 MNOK. The programme was sponsored by the Norwegian Scientific and Industrial Research Council (NTNF) as one of the twin programmes constituting a national research initiative in microelectronics. The motivation for the programme is the recognition of microelectronics as a key technology commanding the performance and market success of many of the electronics systems from the Norwegian electronics industry towards the year 2000. The main objective is to stimulate industrial innovation by developing, transferring and exploiting knowledge and methods based upon advanced microelectronics. Focused activities are silicon sensor technology, combined analogue/digital design of application‐specific integrated circuits, large scale instrumentation, sensor packaging and thermal management of electronic systems. SI is focusing on applied research, UiO on education, and collaborating Norwegian companies are using the results in their own R&D projects. It is anticipated that the research results will be fully industrialised within 3–5 years. The programme is co‐ordinated with other Norwegian government‐sponsored research activities as well as European research programmes based on microelectronics. The programme is organised in projects and monitored with a set of milestones strongly indicating the achievement of successful industrial innovation, research results of international standing and high‐quality education of key personnel for the industry. Several successful examples of the research results are highlighted: Design and process methodology for double‐sided microstrip silicon radiation sensors for detection of high energy elementary particles, silicon‐to‐silicon and silicon‐to‐thin film anodic bonding processes for sensor fabrication, combined analogue/digital application‐specific integrated circuits for front‐end instrumentation applications, packaging of radiation sensors and thermal management of electronic systems by evaporation cooling. It is concluded that the programme has successfully achieved results in harmony with the objective.

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Microelectronics International, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article

Russell Moseley

There are two common misconceptions concerning policy for science and technology: firstly, that it is only government that is involved; and secondly, that any such policy…

Abstract

There are two common misconceptions concerning policy for science and technology: firstly, that it is only government that is involved; and secondly, that any such policy consists of a coherent, consistent set of measures aimed at specific goals. Inevitably, things are rather more complicated. While government policy is of crucial importance it is nevertheless possible to identify other levels at which policy is made— whether it be implicit or explicit—and which influence the rate and direction of technological change. In the present context it may be useful to consider the point of application of technology by looking at the policy of the firm, and also at the attempts by those most directly affected by technological change to exert some influence. What follows considers three areas in which policy concerning microelectronics is evolving: at the level of the firm, within government, and among trade unions. Although attention is focused solely on developments in Britain, many of the lessons will be relevant to those countries in which debates concerning microelectronics are currently taking place.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

N. Sinnadurai

In order to identify and quantify the size and shape of the rapidly changing complexion of the market for hybrid microelectronics, in 1987 ISHM launched a survey in Europe…

Abstract

In order to identify and quantify the size and shape of the rapidly changing complexion of the market for hybrid microelectronics, in 1987 ISHM launched a survey in Europe of the market for thin‐film, thick‐film and surface‐mount‐on‐PCB hybrids for the periods 1980, 1986 and 1990. The survey aimed to obtain a hierarchical breakdown of the markets also into technology and application sectors. The general findings are reported. The credibility and quantity of the survey are considered in the context of the market for electronic equipment in Europe for 1987 and 1990. In electronics there is a continuing pressure to reduce prices and therefore adjustments should not be made for inflation. A growth in market value is thus a true reflection of a larger growth in market volume and a continuing increase in complexity. Thus, the 11% CAGR for 1986–1990 reflects a growth in equipment volumes of 20% over the 4 year period. Manufacturers will have to design and build increasingly complex circuits at a higher throughput and lower cost, at an increasing pace. It is not a business for faint hearts. Clearly the growth potential for the hybrid microelectronics market should be considered in the context of the equipment market, in order to judge the relative growth. In order to distinguish between the hybrid and PCB industries, the survey has aimed to estimate the growth in the developing market for hybrids using substrates up to 6 in. × 4 in. (Eurocard), not including the larger SMAs on PCBs for which there is a huge market growth potential. The immediate opportunity is from miniaturisation and cost reduction using hybrid microelectronics. The major push in technological emphasis in modern hybrids comes from the need for high‐density interconnection to support increasingly complex VLSI in high‐pin‐count surface‐mount micropackages and high‐performance substrates to support VHSIC and high‐performance circuits. Hence there is a major shift in hybrid microelectronics technology emphasis towards high‐density surface‐mount assemblies on PCB and other organic substrates. The total hybrid market sub‐divided among the basic three technologies reveals this emphasis. The portents are clear, and those who intend to succeed, or even simply survive, need to be aware of the shift in emphasis and prepare to diversify or establish strengths in niche applications.

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Microelectronics International, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article

John Monk

Microelectronics and in particular microprocessors and the microcomputers of which they are a part, are capable of performing complex data processing tasks. The costs of…

Abstract

Microelectronics and in particular microprocessors and the microcomputers of which they are a part, are capable of performing complex data processing tasks. The costs of these electronic systems has fallen to a level where they can be considered by a designer to be a part of industrial, office and even domestic goods competing with older mechanical, electrical and electronic techniques. These electronic systems have also made economically feasible new products which were previously too expensive using the alternative methods of operation. The rapid rate of development and the consequent reductions in prices of microelectronics and the products that use it particularly in the sphere of automation, on the shop floor and in the office has given academics, researchers, politicians and trade unionists a cause for concern. The worries are that new tools for production incorporating microelectronics will displace labour and that furthermore many new products that incorporate microelectronics will require fewer people to assemble smaller numbers of standardised components. At the same time many industrialists see opportunities for new products helping to raise the standard of living and employing people in their production. There is therefore a balance between employment in the production of new products and the displacement of labour as products and labour intensive production processes are made obsolescent. The debate is whether the advent of microelectronics will significantly increase unemployment or not and if it does, what the effects on society will be. However, if the advantages of microelectronics are merely temporary then the changes that have been seen so far may be the full extent of the revolution that is being presaged. This paper explains how microelectronic components are made and examines the constraints on their development to show that even though current components have not achieved their full influence there is still likely to be considerable increases in the capabilities of microelectronics, microcomputers and the electronic systems that incorporate them.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

R.J. CLAYTON

There have been many technological changes in this century, but the most influential is the recent revolution in electronics and its applications. As a result, so much was…

Abstract

There have been many technological changes in this century, but the most influential is the recent revolution in electronics and its applications. As a result, so much was said and written last year about microelectronics that some people called it, incorrectly in my view, the year of the microprocessor. Most microelectronic devices look alike so I will start by defining the terms I shall use.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 51 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article

W.J. Luo, X.J. Chen, C.Y. Yang, Y.K. Zheng, K. Wei and X.Y. Liu

The purpose of this paper is to report on the stabilization network optimization of internally matched GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the stabilization network optimization of internally matched GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs).

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of the two stabilization networks on the characteristics of the device are discussed, such as the stability, power gain and output power.

Findings

With the optimized stabilization network, the internally matched GaN HEMTs with 16‐mm gate width exhibited good stability and delivers a 46 dBm output power with 6.1 dB power gain under the continuous wave condition at 8 GHz. By using the optimized stabilization network, the package process of the large‐scale microwave power device of GaN HEMTs can be simplified.

Originality/value

This paper provides useful information for the internally matched GaN HEMTs.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article

J. Atkinson, K. Pitt and K. Williams

ISHM, acting as a professional body for a very large sector of microelectronics manufacturing and design, naturally takes a strong and active interest in the education and…

Abstract

ISHM, acting as a professional body for a very large sector of microelectronics manufacturing and design, naturally takes a strong and active interest in the education and training of people working in its industry. An annual Education Prize is awarded by the Society at either undergraduate or post‐graduate level and sometimes both. The aim of the awards is to encourage the writing up of work completed by students as part of the education route. It may be from an internal project such as a B.Eng. report or a Masters Dissertation. It may also be work done by the student in an industrial placement. These three authors or their institutions have been associated with entries which have been awarded a prize. The winning paper is normally published in Hybrid Circuits.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article

Karel Kurzweil

Over a number of years—for some of us for over a decade—we got used to finding Hybrid Circuits at regular intervals on our desk. With this January 1995 issue, the new name…

Abstract

Over a number of years—for some of us for over a decade—we got used to finding Hybrid Circuits at regular intervals on our desk. With this January 1995 issue, the new name of the Journal is Microelectronics International.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article

Z.W. Zhong, T.Y. Tee and J‐E. Luan

This paper seeks to review recent advances in wire bonding, flip chip and lead‐free solder for advanced microelectronics packaging.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to review recent advances in wire bonding, flip chip and lead‐free solder for advanced microelectronics packaging.

Design/methodology/approach

Of the 91 journal papers, 59 were published in 2005‐2007 and topics related to wire bonding, flip chip and lead‐free solder for advanced microelectronics packaging are reviewed.

Findings

Research on advanced wire bonding is continuously performed for advanced and complex applications such as stacked‐dies wire bonding, wire bonding of low‐k ultra‐fine‐pitch devices, and copper wire bonding. Owing to its many advantages, flip chip using adhesive has gained more popularity. Research on the reliability of lead‐free solder joints is being conducted world‐wide. The new challenges, solutions and new developments are discussed in this paper.

Research limitations/implications

Because of page limitation of this review paper and the large number of the journal papers available, only a brief review is conducted. Further reading is needed for more details.

Originality/value

This review paper attempts to provide introduction to recent developments and the trends in terms of the topics for advanced microelectronics packaging. With the references provided, readers may explore more deeply, focusing on a particular issue.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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