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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Baodong Shao, Zhaowei Sun and Lifeng Wang

This paper sets out to optimize the shape and size of microchannels cooling heat sink, which has been widely used to cool electronic chip for its high heat transfer…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to optimize the shape and size of microchannels cooling heat sink, which has been widely used to cool electronic chip for its high heat transfer coefficient and compact structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is used to optimize the cross‐section sizes of microchannels. Finite volume method is used to numerically simulate the cooling performance of optimal microchannel cooling heat sink.

Findings

The optimized cross‐section shape of microchannel is rectangular, and the width and depth of microchannel is 50 and 1,000 μm, respectively, the number of microchannels is 60, and the corresponding least thermal resistance is 0.115996°C/W. The results show that the heat transfer performance of microchannel cooling heat sink is affected intensively by its cross‐section shape and dimension. The convection heat resistance Rconv between inner surface in microchannels and working fluid has more influence in the total heat resistance. The heat flux of chip is 278 W/cm2 and, through the optimization microchannel cooling heat sink, the highest temperature in the chip can be kept below 42°C, which is about half of that without optimizing heat sink and can ensure the stability and reliability of chip.

Research limitations/implications

The convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated approximatively here for convenience, and that may induce some errors.

Originality/value

The optimized microchannels cooling heat sink may satisfy the request for removal of high heat flux in new‐generation chips.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Yanjun Zhang, Shuangfeng Wang and Zhuming Liu

The purpose of this study is to conduct research on a new kind of division microchannel heat sink (D-MCHS), which can distribute cooling water along the channel-length…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to conduct research on a new kind of division microchannel heat sink (D-MCHS), which can distribute cooling water along the channel-length direction. First, the pressure drops in the D-MCHS with different division region numbers were compared. Then, the cooling performance of the D-MCHS with different division region numbers was also comparatively investigated. Finally, the temperature distribution on the bottom surface of the D-MCHS was analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

First, experiments were conducted to investigate the numerical calculation method. Then, a three-dimensional steady, single-phase, laminar flow and solid-fluid conjugate heat transfer numerical model was used to research the flow and heat transfer characteristics in microchannels.

Findings

The pressure drop in the D-MCHS could be reduced by increasing the number of divided flow regions along the channel-length direction. The bottom average temperature of the D-MCHS could be simultaneously affected by the number of divided flow regions and the water flow rate. The thermal uniformity performance of the D-MCHS could be improved by increasing the number of division flow regions. The number of low-temperature and high-temperature areas on the bottom surface of the D-MCHS is corresponding to the division flow region number.

Originality/value

The D-MCHS exhibited a positive effect on the pressure drop decrease and thermal uniformity improvement. It not only keeps the electronic module working in a secure temperature environment but also consumes less pump power for a lower pressure drop.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Shivam Doshi, Gopal Kashyap and Nishant Tiwari

This study aims to capture the heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics of temperature-dependent nano-encapsulated phase change material (NEPCM) slurry in a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to capture the heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics of temperature-dependent nano-encapsulated phase change material (NEPCM) slurry in a hybrid wavy microchannel. In addition, the effect of substrate material combined with NEPCM slurry on conjugate heat transfer condition is captured for different microchannel heat sinks.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel “hybrid wavy microchannel” is proposed to enhance the overall heat transfer and reduce the pressure drop by combining wavy and raccoon geometry. NEPCM–water slurry is implied in the hybrid wavy, conventional wavy and raccoon microchannel. A user-defined function (UDF) is used to observe the effect of phase-change of paraffin material in thermophysical properties of NEPCM–water nanofluid. All three (hybrid, wavy, raccoon) microchannels are engraved on a rectangular substrate of 1.8 mm width (ωs) and 30 mm length (L), respectively. For hybrid, wavy and raccoon microchannel, waviness (γ) of 0.067 is selected for the investigation.

Findings

The result shows that NEPCM particle presence reduces the fluid domain temperature. The thermal performance of proposed Heat sink 2 is found better than the Heat sink 1. The effect of the geometrical modification, wall thermal conductivity, different volumetric concentrations of nanoparticles (ϕ ∼ 1 – 5%) and Reynolds number (Re ∼ 100 – 500) on thermodynamic irreversibility is also observed. Additionally, the effect of thermal and frictional entropy generation is reduced with a combination of NEPCM slurry and higher conductive material for all heat sinks.

Practical implications

A combination of NEPCM slurry with laminar flow microchannel cooling system emerged as a better alternative over other cooling techniques for higher power density devices such as microprocessors, electronic radar systems, aerospace applications, semiconductors, power electronics in modern electronic vehicles, high power lasers, etc.

Originality/value

The phase-change process of the NEPCM slurry is tracked under conjugate heat transfer in a hybrid wavy microchannel. Furthermore, the phase-change process of NEPCM slurry is captured with different heat sink materials (SS316, silicon and copper) under conjugate heat transfer situation for different heat sinks and concentrations (ϕ ∼ 1–5) of NEPCM.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2021

Alireza Dibaji, Seyed Amin Bagherzadeh and Arash Karimipour

This paper aims to simulate the nanofluid forced convection in a microchannel. According to the results, at high Reynolds numbers and higher nanofluid volume fractions, an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to simulate the nanofluid forced convection in a microchannel. According to the results, at high Reynolds numbers and higher nanofluid volume fractions, an increase in the rib height and slip coefficient further improved the heat transfer rate. The ribs also affect the flow physics depending on the Reynolds number so that the slip velocity decreases with increasing the nanofluid volume fraction and rib height.

Design/methodology/approach

Forced heat transfer of the water–copper nanofluid is numerically studied in a two dimensional microchannel. The effects of the slip coefficient, Reynolds number, nanofluid volume fraction and rib height are investigated on the average Nusselt number, slip velocity on the microchannel wall and the performance evaluation criterion.

Findings

In contrast, the slip velocity increases with increasing the Reynolds number and slip coefficient. Afterwards, a non-parametric function estimation is performed relying on the artificial neural network.

Originality/value

Finally, the Genetic Algorithm was used to establish a set of optimal decision parameters for the problem

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Rouhollah Moosavi, Mehdi Banihashemi and Cheng-Xian Lin

This paper aims to numerically investigate the thermal performance evaluation of a microchannel with different porous media insert configurations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to numerically investigate the thermal performance evaluation of a microchannel with different porous media insert configurations.

Design/methodology/approach

Heat transfer and pressure drop of fluid flow through a three-dimensional (3D) microchannel with different partially and filled porous media insert configurations are investigated numerically. The number of divisions and positions of porous material inside the microchannel for 12 different arrangements are considered. A control volume method is used for single-phase laminar flow with the Darcy–Forchheimer model used for the porous media. The geometry of the problem consists of a microchannel with a rectangular cross-section of 0.4 mm × 0.2 mm and length 20 mm, with a stainless steel porous material insert with a porosity coefficient of ε = 0.32 and a Darcy number of Da = 2.7 × 10−4.

Findings

Numerical results show that when the transverse arrangement is used, as the number of partitions increases, the thermal performance is improved and the heat transfer increases up to 300% compared to that of the plain microchannel. Comparing the obtained results from the microchannels with transverse and longitudinal configurations, at low Reynolds numbers, the transverse arrangement of porous blocks and at high Reynold numbers, the longitudinal arrangement present the best thermal performance which is virtually four times higher compared to the obtained Nu numbers from the plain microchannel. The results show that as the volume of porous material is constant in the cases with various transverse porous blocks, the pressure drop is not changed in these cases. Also, the highest thermal performance ratio is when the porous material is placed along the walls in a longitudinal direction.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, in the previous research, the effect of the arrangement and location of the porous medium in the transverse and longitudinal direction in the microchannel and their effect in different states on the behavior of flow and heat transfer has not been numerically investigated. In this study, the porous media configuration and its placement in a 3D microchannel were numerically studied. The effect of porous material layout and configurations in different longitudinal and transverse directions on the pressure drop, heat transfer and thermal performance in the 3D microchannel is investigated numerically.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Hui Zhang and Xianfei Liu

This study aims to propose the increase of heat dissipation requirements of modern electronic equipment and the fast development of micro-scale manufacturing technologies…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose the increase of heat dissipation requirements of modern electronic equipment and the fast development of micro-scale manufacturing technologies. The heat transfer mechanism is studied in-depth, especially for its pattern of secondary flow caused by the repeated inversion of centrifugal force. Effects of η on the frictional pressure drop and average Nusselt number are studied and the performance of such microchannel heat sink with various bend amplitudes is comprehensively evaluated. These results can provide important insight into the optimal design of this novel design configuration for microelectronics cooling.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional model based on the finite volume approach and SIMPLEC algorithm is performed to test an innovative serpentine microchannel, which behaves differently from conventional serpentine microchannel due to the significant effect of centrifugal force inversion.

Findings

The effect of centrifugal force significantly influences the flow and thermal fields which are responsible for the enhancement in heat transfer coefficient. The number, size and intensity of vortices increase with increasing Re, and the vortices are reformed at every change of the geometry in a periodic fashion. The serpentine microchannel studies more effectively at larger bend amplitude. Pressure fluctuations and temperature variation are greater with increasing bend amplitude.

Practical implications

Several techniques have been developed to augment single-phase convective heat transfer in channels. One technique is to use a serpentine channel that enhances the heat transfer due to flow mixing and periodic interruption of thermal boundary layers. This technique has been applied to micro-heat exchangers, thermal regenerators and mini/microreactors.

Social implications

The optimal design of this novel design configuration for microelectronics cooling can be attained. It will become an effective cooling technology for solving the increasing of heat dissipation requirements of modern electronic equipment.

Originality/value

The flow and heat transfer characteristics are first presented for the circular serpentine microchannel made up of alternate U-bends without interposed straight segments. The present study first examines the effect of such centrifugal force inversion on velocity contour, pressure distribution and temperature distribution. The patterns of secondary flow along the flow passage caused by the repeated inversion of centrifugal force are further studied in depth. The effect of bend amplitude on the flow and heat transfer is explored and the performance of such microchannel heat sink has been comprehensively evaluated.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Jiahao Wang, Guodong Xia, Ran Li, Dandan Ma, Wenbin Zhou and Jun Wang

This study aims to satisfy the thermal management of gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices, microchannel-cooling is designed and optimized…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to satisfy the thermal management of gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices, microchannel-cooling is designed and optimized in this work.

Design/methodology/approach

A numerical simulation is performed to analyze the thermal and flow characteristics of microchannels in combination with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) is used to optimize the microchannels parameters. The design variables include width and number of microchannels, and the optimization objectives are to minimize total thermal resistance and pressure drop under constant volumetric flow rate.

Findings

In optimization process, a decrease in pressure drop contributes to increase of thermal resistance leading to high junction temperature and vice versa. And the Pareto-optimal front, which is a trade-off curve between optimization objectives, is obtained by MOEA method. Finally, K-means clustering algorithm is carried out on Pareto-optimal front, and three representative points are proposed to verify the accuracy of the model.

Originality/value

Each design variable on the effect of two objectives and distribution of temperature is researched. The relationship between minimum thermal resistance and pressure drop is provided which can give some fundamental direction for microchannels design in GaN HEMT devices cooling.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Minqiang Pan, Hongqing Wang, Yujian Zhong, Tianyu Fang and Xineng Zhong

With the increasing heat dissipation of electronic devices, the cooling demand of electronic products is increasing gradually. A water-cooled microchannel heat exchanger…

278

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing heat dissipation of electronic devices, the cooling demand of electronic products is increasing gradually. A water-cooled microchannel heat exchanger is an effective cooling technology for electronic equipment. The structure of a microchannel has great impact on the heat transfer performance of a microchannel heat exchanger. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristic of a microchannel heat exchanger with different reentrant cavities.

Design/methodology/approach

The three-dimensional steady, laminar developing flow and conjugate heat transfer governing equations of a plate microchannel heat exchanger are solved using the finite volume method.

Findings

At the flow rate range studied in this paper, the microchannel heat exchangers with reentrant cavities present better heat transfer performance and smaller pressure drop. A microchannel heat exchanger with trapezoidal-shaped cavities has best heat transfer performance, and a microchannel heat exchanger with fan-shaped cavities has the smallest pressure drop.

Research limitations/implications

The fluid is incompressible and the inlet temperature is constant.

Practical implications

It is an effective way to enhance heat transfer and reduce pressure drop by adding cavities in microchannels and the data will be helpful as guidelines in the selection of reentrant cavities.

Originality/value

This paper provides the pressure drop and heat transfer performance analysis of microchannel heat exchangers with various reentrant cavities, which can provide reference for heat transfer augmentation of an existing microchannel heat exchanger in a thermal design.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2018

Esmaeil Jalali and Arash Karimipour

In this paper, the forced convection heat transfer of the nanofluid composed of water and AL2O3 nanoparticles is simulated in a two-dimensional horizontal microchannel by…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the forced convection heat transfer of the nanofluid composed of water and AL2O3 nanoparticles is simulated in a two-dimensional horizontal microchannel by injecting the lower wall. The upper wall of the microchannel is 303 K at temperature TH. On the lower wall of the microchannel, there are three holes for flow injection. Other parts of the wall are insulated. In this paper, the effect of parameters such as Reynolds number, slip coefficient and volume fraction of nanoparticles is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The boundary condition of the slip velocity is considered on the upper and lower walls of the microchannel. In this work, the flow of nanofluid in the microchannel is considered to be slow, permanent and Newtonian. In the present study, the effect of injection through the microchannel wall on the slip velocity is examined for the first time.

Findings

The results are also presented as velocity profiles and Nusselt number diagrams. It was found that the Nusselt number increases with increasing the amount of slip coefficient of velocity and the weight percentage of solid nanoparticles. The rate of this increase is higher in the high values of the Reynolds number.

Originality/value

A novel paper concerned the simulation of cross-flow injection effects on the slip velocity and temperature domain of a nanofluid flow inside a microchannel.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Vahid Jaferian, Davood Toghraie, Farzad Pourfattah, Omid Ali Akbari and Pouyan Talebizadehsardari

The purpose of this study is three-dimensional flow and heat transfer investigation of water/Al2O3 nanofluid inside a microchannel with different cross-sections in two-phase mode.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is three-dimensional flow and heat transfer investigation of water/Al2O3 nanofluid inside a microchannel with different cross-sections in two-phase mode.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of microchannel walls geometry (trapezoidal, sinusoidal and stepped microchannels) on flow characteristics and also changing circular cross section to trapezoidal cross section in laminar flow at Reynolds numbers of 50, 100, 300 and 600 were investigated. In this study, two-phase water/Al2O3 nanofluid is simulated by the mixture model, and the effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on performance evaluation criterion (PEC) is studied. The accuracy of obtained results was compared with the experimental and numerical results of other similar papers.

Findings

Results show that in flow at lower Reynolds numbers, sinusoidal walls create a pressure drop in pure water flow which improves heat transfer to obtain PEC < 1. However, in sinusoidal and stepped microchannel with higher Reynolds numbers, PEC > 1. Results showed that the stepped microchannel had higher pressure drop, better thermal performance and higher PEC than other microchannels.

Originality/value

Review of previous studies showed that existing papers have not compared and investigated nanofluid in a two-phase mode in inhomogeneous circular, stepped and sinusoidal cross and trapezoidal cross-sections by considering the effect of changing channel shape, which is the aim of the present paper.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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