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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Elif Inan-Eroglu and Aylin Ayaz

Recent evidence suggests that especially processed foods may lead to undesirable metabolic effects in gut microbiota. The emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners that are…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent evidence suggests that especially processed foods may lead to undesirable metabolic effects in gut microbiota. The emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners that are added to processed foods may play a role in the progression of the diseases through the modulation of microbiota in mice. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a narrative review of the effects of emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners which are mainly in consumed in the Western diet, to the gut microbiota by mainly focusing on the experimental studies.

Findings

Although in vivo studies and animal model studies showed various adverse effects of sweeteners and emulsifiers to microbiota, studies should be conducted in humans to investigate the effects of these food additives to human microbiota by making dietary interventions in the context of ethical rules.

Originality/value

In future, studies will allow us to draw more definitive conclusion whether human population consuming sweeteners and emulsifiers are at risk.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Arbind Kumar Choudhary and Yeong Lee

This paper aims to summarize the available literatures, specifically in the following areas: metabolic and other side effects of aspartame; microbiota changes/dysbiosis…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarize the available literatures, specifically in the following areas: metabolic and other side effects of aspartame; microbiota changes/dysbiosis and its effect on the gut-brain axis; changes on gut microbiota as a result of aspartame usage; metabolic effects (weight gain and glucose intolerance) of aspartame due to gut dysbiosis; and postulated effects of dysregulated microbiota-gut-brain axis on other aspartame side-effects (neurophysiological symptoms and immune dysfunction).

Design/methodology/approach

Aspartame is rapidly becoming a public health concern because of its purported side-effects especially neurophysiological symptom and immune dysregulation. It is also paradoxical that metabolic consequences including weight gain and impaired blood glucose levels have been observed in consumers. Exact mechanisms of above side-effects are unclear, and data are scarce but aspartame, and its metabolites may have caused disturbance in the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

Findings

Additional studies investigating the impact of aspartame on gut microbiota and metabolic health are needed.

Originality/value

Exact mechanism by which aspartame-induced gut dysbiosis and metabolic dysfunction requires further investigation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Bruna Luísa Radavelli, Priscila Berti Zanella, Amanda Souza Silva and Valesca Dall’Alba

The purpose of this paper is to verify the possible associations between dietary components and the intestinal microbiota in clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to verify the possible associations between dietary components and the intestinal microbiota in clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review, a search in PubMed and Bireme databases was performed. The authors included randomized clinical trials published between 2005 and 2017, only in adult humans with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

Findings

Six articles were included by the end of the search. The most widely used intervention was the use of prebiotics, including fructooligosaccharides or fructooligosaccharides with inulin, followed by probiotics. The main findings regarding the microbiota were the increase in the total amount of bacteria and variability (phyla). Clinically, there was improvement in inflammation seen in parameters such as C-reactive protein, interleukins and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

Originality/value

Dietary interventions, especially from symbiotics, can modulate the microbiota, mainly in relation to time, when compared pre- and post-supplementation, and this positively interferes with clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the studies were quite heterogeneous in population, methodology, intervention, mycobiota analysis and inflammatory markers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Renata Barczynska, Adam Jurgoński, Katarzyna Slizewska, Jerzy Juśkiewicz and Janusz Kapusniak

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of low-fat and high-fat diets supplemented with dextrin obtained from corn starch on the numbers and relative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of low-fat and high-fat diets supplemented with dextrin obtained from corn starch on the numbers and relative proportions of enteric bacteria Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Prevotella), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium) and Firmicutes (Clostridium, Lactobacillus). Moreover, basic indicators of gastrointestinal function (among other things: epidydymal fat mass, mass with contents, pH in the colon, cecum, small intestine, fecal enzymes were investigation) and short-chain fatty acids are analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

In vivo experimental studies in rats (analized samples of the ileal, cecal and colonic digesta; pH; blood serum; fecal enzymes); determination of the number of bacteria – fluorescence in situ hybridization; and determination of type and concentration SCFA – HPLC were considered.

Findings

No statistically significant differences in final body weight were found between rats fed low-fat and high-fat diets supplemented with dextrin. In rats fed the low-fat diet with dextrin, the gut microbiota composition was as follows: 42.74 percent Bacteroises and Prevotella (Bacteroidetes), 35.28 percent Clostridium and Lactobacilllus (Firmicutes) and 21.98 percent Bifidobacterium (Actinobacteria), while in rats fed the high-fat diet with dextrin it was similar. Irrespective of the diet type, supplementation with dextrin enhances bacterial glycolytic activity and the cecal production of total SCFAs, with strongly increased propionate and decreased butyrate fermentation.

Practical implications

Dextrin may enrich food or be a component of functional foods.

Originality/value

Dextrin from corn starch may contribute to changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Rio Jati Kusuma and Aviria Ermamilia

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most major micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification is one strategy for reducing IDA in the population despite…

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most major micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification is one strategy for reducing IDA in the population despite concern regarding the gut pathogenic bacteria overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of iron encapsulation in banana peel matrix on iron status and gut microbiota composition in iron deficiency anemia.

Design/methodology/approach

Anemia was induced in 35 male Sprague Dawley rats of age two weeks by the administration of iron-free diet for two weeks. Rats then randomly divided into control, iron-fortified tempeh (temFe) dose 10 and 20 ppm, iron matrix-fortified tempeh dose 10 and 20 ppm and iron matrix fortified tempeh dose 10 and 20 ppm with probiotic mixture. Blood was drawn at Weeks 2 and 6 for hemoglobin and serum iron analysis. Rats were sacrificed at the end of Week 6, and cecal contents were collected for Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Enterobactericeae analysis.

Findings

Hemoglobin and serum iron were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all iron-fortified group with the highest value found in iron matrix dose 20 ppm (10.71 ± 0.15 g/dl and 335.83 ± 2.17 µg/dl, respectively). The cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria did not differ significantly between groups. Cecal Enterobactericeae was significantly different (p < 0.05) among groups with the lowest level in the temFe-20 (2.65 ± 0.78 log CFU) group.

Research limitations/implications

The use of commercial inoculum instead of pure Rhizopus oligosporus mold for developing the fortified tempeh may impact the effect of product on cecal gut microbiota composition, as different molds and lactic acid bacteria can grow in tempeh when using commercial inoculum.

Social implications

In Indonesia, iron fortification is conducted primarily in noodles and flour that limits the impact of iron fortification for reducing IDA in population. Iron fortification in food that was daily consumed by people, that is, tempeh, is potential strategy in reducing IDA in population.

Originality/value

Tempeh fortification using encapsulated iron improved iron status and gut microbiota composition in iron deficiency anemia.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Sejeong Kim, Soomin Lee, Hyemin Oh, Jimyeong Ha, Jeeyeon Lee, Yukyung Choi, Yewon Lee, Yujin Kim, Yeong-Eun Seo and Yohan Yoon

Gut microbial changes are associated with diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes and may be influenced by diet patterns. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

Gut microbial changes are associated with diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes and may be influenced by diet patterns. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the effects of alcohol, sodium chloride (NaCl) and dietary restriction on the composition of the gut microflora.

Design/methodology/approach

Five-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were orally administered by gavage with ethanol (ET; 4 g/kg), 200 µL of 6% NaCl (NC), or equivalent volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (ET-control and NC-control) every two days for 10 weeks. The mice were also orally administered by gavage with the recommended diet (RD-control; 3 g per mouse per day), or with 40% (RD-40) or 60% restricted level (RD-60). DNA samples obtained from mice ceca were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Sequencing system; raw data were analyzed using BIOiPLUG software.

Findings

This study shows that high ethanol and NaCl consumption, and diet restriction can change the composition of the intestinal microflora, especially Akkermansia muciniphila in ET (p = 0.0050) and NT (p = 0.0366) groups. In addition, the ratio of Bacteriodetes/Firmicutes and the diversity of microflora were generally reduced (p = 0.0487-0.4929).

Originality/value

These results raise the possibility of a relationship between diet patterns, change of intestinal microbiome and disease, which must be further evaluated.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Richard Frank Tester and Farage H. Al-Ghazzewi

This paper aims to focus on the utilisation of pre- and probiotics for oral care and the state of knowledge at this time.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the utilisation of pre- and probiotics for oral care and the state of knowledge at this time.

Design/methodology/approach

Pre- and probiotics describe beneficial carbohydrates and microbiota, respectively, for optimal gut health. Carbohydrates provide energy selectively for the gut-friendly bacteria. The use of both carbohydrates and bacteria is, however, being expanded into other areas of the body – including the skin, vagina and oral cavity – for health-related applications.

Findings

There is increased interest in both pre- and probiotics for oral care products. The importance of oral microflora and their selective substrates is discussed against a background of contemporary oral care approaches. The issues and benefits are discussed in this review.

Originality/value

It is clear that consumption of prebiotics and probiotics may play a role as potential prophylactic or therapeutic agents for reducing the presence of organisms in the mouth associated with tooth decay. To confirm a beneficial effect of pre- and probiotics further in vivo studies involving healthy human volunteers should be considered.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

S. Sarkar

Increased evidence for the health benefits of probiotics for health restoration coupled with the consumer's inclination towards a safe, natural and cost-effective…

Abstract

Purpose

Increased evidence for the health benefits of probiotics for health restoration coupled with the consumer's inclination towards a safe, natural and cost-effective substitute for drugs have led application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent and are rapidly moving in clinical usage. In this context, this article attempts to highlight the potential of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent.

Design/methodology/approach

Endeavor has been made to explore the significance of probiotics for the modulation of gut ecology and their action. Potentiality of probiotics for their exploitation as a pharmaceutical agent has also been justified. Limitations of probiotic therapy and the various considerations for probiotic therapy have also been delineated.

Findings

Probiotic organisms influence the physiological and pathological process of the host by modifying the intestinal microbiota, thereby affecting human health. Beneficial effects of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent seem to be strain and dose dependent and more efficacious with their early introduction. Combination of various probiotics proved to be more efficacious than single strain for exhibiting prophylactic activities.

Research limitations/implications

Reviewed literature indicated that it is difficult to generalize for the beneficial effect of all probiotics for all types of diseases as efficacy of probiotics is strain-dependent and dose-dependent and its clinical application needs long-term investigations.

Practical implications

Clinical trials have displayed that probiotics may alleviate certain disorders or diseases in humans especially those related to gastro-intestinal tract.

Originality/value

Ingestion of fermented dairy products containing probiotic cultures may provide health benefits in certain clinical conditions such as antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, rotavirus-associated diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, allergenic diseases, cancer, Helicobacter pylori infection and lactose-intolerance. Application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent is recommended.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2015

Callie H. Burt

Heritability studies attempt to estimate the contribution of genes (vs. environments) to variation in phenotypes (or outcomes of interest) in a given population at a given…

Abstract

Purpose

Heritability studies attempt to estimate the contribution of genes (vs. environments) to variation in phenotypes (or outcomes of interest) in a given population at a given time. This chapter scrutinizes heritability studies of adverse health phenotypes, emphasizing flaws that have become more glaring in light of recent advances in the life sciences and manifest most visibly in epigenetics.

Methodology/approach

Drawing on a diverse body of research and critical scholarship, this chapter examines the veracity of methodological and conceptual assumptions of heritability studies.

Findings

The chapter argues that heritability studies are futile for two reasons: (1) heritability studies suffer from serious methodological flaws with the overall effect of making estimates inaccurate and likely biased toward inflated heritability, and, more importantly (2) the conceptual (biological) model on which heritability studies depend – that of identifiably separate effects of genes versus the environment on phenotype variance – is unsound. As discussed, contemporary bioscientific work indicates that genes and environments are enmeshed in a complex (bidirectional, interactional), dynamic relationship that defies any attempt to demarcate separate contributions to phenotype variance. Thus, heritability studies attempt the biologically impossible. The emerging research on the importance of microbiota is also discussed, including how the commensal relationship between microbial and human cells further stymies heritability studies.

Originality/value

Understandably, few sociologists have the time or interest to be informed about the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of heritability studies or to keep pace with the incredible advances in genetics and epigenetics over the last several years. The present chapter aims to provide interested scholars with information about heritability and heritability estimates of adverse health outcomes in light of recent advances in the biosciences.

Details

Genetics, Health and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-581-4

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

S. Sarkar

Considerable efforts have been exercised to influence the intestinal microbiota by dietary means in such a way that the health of host is beneficially affected. Consumer's…

Abstract

Purpose

Considerable efforts have been exercised to influence the intestinal microbiota by dietary means in such a way that the health of host is beneficially affected. Consumer's belief that certain foods can exhibit health benefits has resulted in the coining of the term functional foods. Functional foods exist at the interface between food and drugs, therefore offers great potential for health improvement and prevention of diseases when ingested as part of a balanced diet. The purpose of this paper is to examine functional foods as self‐care and complementary medicine.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores various aspects of functional foods such as the reasons for consumer's inclination, health claims, formulation, regulation, and labeling.

Findings

Any food can be regarded as functional if it can be demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body or reduce disease risk besides basic nutrition. Health beneficial properties of functional foods suggest their application as self‐care and complementary medicine.

Originality/value

Ingestion of functional food may help in maintaining the intestinal microbiota and prevent disease risk beyond their basic nutritional needs.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 130