In Nigeria, soymilk and fried soy‐cheese are common street‐vended foods sold in market places, motor‐parks, streets and schools. Many processors of these soy‐foods are…
In Nigeria, soymilk and fried soy‐cheese are common street‐vended foods sold in market places, motor‐parks, streets and schools. Many processors of these soy‐foods are women using the soy‐food business to generate income in supporting their families. They have little or no knowledge about good manufacturing practices and good hygiene practices. Careless exposure of prepared foods to environmental contamination is quiet noticeable. The purpose of this paper is to assess microbial hazards and critical control points (CCPs) in the processing of locally processed fried soy‐cheese from different areas in Oyo State, South‐West Nigeria.
Soy‐cheese processors were visited. Samples of water used for processing, fermented maize liquor used as coagulant and fried soy‐cheese were collected for microbial analysis. CCPs were analyzed.
Higher microbial load was recorded in the coagulant samples (≤106 Cfu/ml) and in the fried soy‐cheese displayed for sale (≤103 Cfu/ml). Pathogenic micro‐organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were characterized from the collected samples. Coliforms were present in samples collected.
The paper shows that these processors need to be trained in food safety practices to reduce health risks associated with consumption of these locally processed foods.
OVER the past two years, ten vessels on intercontinental routes have been examined and found to have suffered varying degrees of microbiological deterioration of the main engine lubricating oil. In one case, the emulsification of the oil had caused severe corrosion, necessitating a crankshaft regrind. In several cases the oil was unsuitable for further use and had to be discarded. The paper briefly outlines the mechanism of oil degradation by micro‐organisms and reports practical experience of the types and origin of organisms found in affected ships and the appearance of the oil and bearing surfaces suffering this form of attack. Practical recommendations are given for identification of the problem at the early stages and tested methods used to eliminate the bacterial infection are discussed.
In the good old days, before civilisation and artificial eating habits caught up with mankind, the majority of people in the world got all the Vitamin B and protein their bodies needed through micro‐organic foods. Before the discovery of tea and coffee as beverages, European man drank beer and ale, and the people of Africa, Asia and Australasia drank palm wines. These drinks were prepared by the use of micro‐organisms or fermentation, and supplied large quantities of high‐grade protein and Vitamin B, so essential for health and growth. With the discovery of food yeast and the proposed manufacture of this remarkable food in the British Colonies, the modern diet is going to be revolutionised. The manufacture of bakers' yeast is a simple process and has been known to man for hundreds of years. Into a certain weight of yeast is. introduced a solution of sugars, nitrogen and phosphates and this is allowed to multiply and grow until it has increased its weight fourfold. During this time air is pumped into the solution so the micro‐organisms can breathe, and at the end of nine hours the yeast in the vat is separated from the bulk of the used food solution, washed and pressed ready for use. Yeast has become in recent years increasingly popular as a food, and research workers, knowing the value of yeast in the diet to correct deficiencies, have not been idle in this field. For many years Dr. A. G. Thaysen, Ph.D., M.Sc., has been conducting experiments with yeast, and now, under the auspices of the Colonial Products Research Council, the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research is setting up a Micro‐biological Research Laboratory to carry out further experiments. As a result of visits to the West Indies by Sir R. Robinson and Professor Simonsen, it has been decided that this laboratory should be built in St. Clair, Port of Spain, where Dr. Thaysen will conduct experiments for an initial period of three years. Dr. Thaysen is of Danish origin, a naturalised British subject. He went to England early in 1914 to work at the Lister Institute on micro‐organisms, and when World War I. broke out the Admiralty secured his services for special war work. After the war he continued his research work with the Admiralty, and in 1936 his laboratory was transferred to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Recently the Colonial Products Research Council, by arrangement with the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, secured Dr. Thaysen's services for the study of food yeast in the West Indies. Whereas bakers' yeast will only increase fourfold in nine hours, it has been possible to increase the weight of food yeast 64‐fold in the same time, and this yeast shows the same behaviour in its life cycle as is characteristic of all free living bacteria. The aim of these experiments is the manufacture of food yeast on an industrial scale, and some years ago a small pilot plant was started at Teddington, England, where some 100 to 150 lb. of food yeast could be produced weekly. With the experience gained at this plant, the Colonial Office has set up a commercial scale plant in Jamaica with funds provided under the Colonial Development and Welfare Act. Jamaica was chosen for the site of this first pilot plant in the West Indies because the West Indies Sugar Company had the available accommodation, surplus power and technical staff to manufacture food yeast economically, and also had adequate supplies of molasses, sugar and cane juice close at hand. A similar plant is under construction in India. In planning for a wide scale manufacture of food yeast it is necessary to select localities where there is an abundant and cheap supply of the necessary sugars or other carbohydrates. The West Indies and India, for instance, can supply molasses; Africa, maize and other grains; the Middle East, citrus fruit and carob beans; and Canada, Newfoundland and the United States, waste sulphite liquor from the manufacture of paper. Food yeast, as produced in the pilot plant, is a light, straw‐coloured flaky powder with a pleasant nutty or meaty flavour. It has a protein content of between 40 and 45 per cent., contains some 2 per cent. of phosphorus, a balanced proportion of Vitamin B, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and is superior to liver and the various yeast extracts at present on the market. One ton of food yeast can be produced from 1·7 tons of sugar products or other carbohydrates. Food yeast has been fed successfully to livestock with remarkable results, and for human consumption it can be incorporated into flour for bread and biscuits and used for flavouring soups and stews. To quote Dr. Thaysen : “ It is essential to produce food yeast at the lowest possible price if it is to serve its primary purpose of supplying those sections of humanity who are least blessed with worldly riches with a wholesome and abundant protein and Vitamin B food.” In other words, it can well be seen that the discovery of food yeast is going to be one of the greatest contributions science has made in our own time, the atomic bomb notwithstanding, and with so many people in the world at the moment suffering from years of malnutrition in varying degrees, food yeast is going to be one of the Allied Nations' greatest contributions to the rehabilitation of the world and the immediate need to feed Europe, after years of war, can be faced confidently now that Jamaica is producing it in sufficient quantity.
Introduction Micro‐organisms can play a significant role regarding corrosion in aqueous systems. They set up microscopic corrosion cells causing a break‐up of protective…
Introduction Micro‐organisms can play a significant role regarding corrosion in aqueous systems. They set up microscopic corrosion cells causing a break‐up of protective films and produce noxious and corrosive gases. Sulphuric acid is generated by certain of the bacteria and this corrodes far more quickly than the normal oxidation process. Organic detritus and slime is produced which not only interferes with the efficiency and free circulation of the system but also acts as a food supply, ensuring the continued growth of bacteria, algae and fungi.
Discusses the factors which affect how quickly Legionella bacteria grow: water throughput, water temperature, and chemical water treatments. Examines management criteria for control of these factors – training, water quality testing, record keeping and maintenance – as well as inspection procedures for cooling systems. Concludes that control of microbiological water quality depends on knowledge of building and systems as well as clear procedures and records.
Seeks to answer the question “whose interests are being served by the laws of purporting to regulate genetically modified organisms?“ Considers the interests of the…
Seeks to answer the question “whose interests are being served by the laws of purporting to regulate genetically modified organisms?“ Considers the interests of the seed/chemical multinational companies, trade and investment for the countries in which these companies operate and the innovation of science and technology. Covers the European interests with regards to the single internal market and the conflict this can cause between economic and environmental/health interests. Looks at the issues from the US perspective and world trade. Continues by covering nature and the environment followed by health and safety and the rights of consumers. Assesses the regulations of the European community in order to find what protection is available.
Micro‐organisms have an important part to play in the natural cycle of breakdown and re‐use of materials. They form a well‐organised body of specialists that can break down many materials under a wide range of conditions. Unfortunately they go to work on the materials of their choice in things made and used by man. The author mentions some practical corrosion and deterioration problems, and stresses the need for adequate testing of industrial products for mould‐resistance.
Discusses a research project carried out by Nestlé in Lausanne to identify health‐beneficial bacteria within its collection. Shows how an exploratory research project can lead to product innovation and new product launches.
Studies the effects of exposure to light of the laser diode Melles Griot (λ = 670nm), He‐Ne laser (λ = 632.8nm) and argon laser (λ = 514nm) on selected soil micro‐organisms…
Studies the effects of exposure to light of the laser diode Melles Griot (λ = 670nm), He‐Ne laser (λ = 632.8nm) and argon laser (λ = 514nm) on selected soil micro‐organisms, fungi that destroy old manuscripts, pictures, stone, etc. and on humification and mineralization of soil samples. Also studies exposure effects on seed growth and biomass production of a few species of cultivated plants and on Chlorella cells and animal spermatozoa. Finds significant changes in comparison to control material (including results of the preliminary measurement of bio‐photon emission). Suggests a fruitful direction for studies on the synergistic effects of Se, laser and white light, as well as on the optimal level of exposure of living material to laser light. Concludes that the data obtained seem to be useful both for land reclamation and for the protection of the indoor environment against toxicogenic moulds and bacteria.
The Commissioner of Public Health by virtue of the powers invested in him under “The Health Acts, 1900 to 1922” has made Regulations dealing with the Manufacture, Storage, Handling, Sale, etc., of Food and Drugs and other closely allied articles. Standards of purity and composition are laid down and most of the articles mentioned are defined. The Regulations have been approved by His Excellency the Governor and will come into operation on 1st May, 1929. These Regulations are very comprehensive, and wide in their scope, and in great contrast to the state of affairs in Great Britain where it would be necessary to search innumerable Departmental Orders, Factory Acts, Bye‐laws, etc., to find any regulations which approach these in their objects or entirety. Owing to absence of similar consolidation many of our regulations are overlooked or neglected. In only a few instances can it be said that we have specific regulations superior to these under review.—The first section contains General Regulations dealing mainly with the labelling of articles. They require that very full information should be stated as to the name and composition of the substance, the name and address of the manufacturer, importer or dealer, and the place of manufacture or origin. These particulars have to be printed on the label in plain letters of special size. The section also deals with the permissible use of specific preservatives and colouring matters, the character and quality of the containers, the allowable limits of poisonous metals, the declaration of net weights and measures, and stipulates the kinds of boiler compositions and vermin exterminators which may be used in food factories. The next section contains Specific Regulations covering all the common articles of Food, Beverages, Drugs, and commonly used substances like Methylated Spirit, Biological products (Anti‐toxins, Sera, Vaccines, etc.), Soap, Disinfectants and Colouring matters. The several articles are defined, whether natural or compounded, and if prepared, details of the methods of manufacture are given, also, in most cases, it is specified how the article concerned should be labelled. Many of these regulations and definitions are worthy of special mention, if only in comparison with the regulations, or want of similar regulations in this Country. To note just a few of the most important:—“Self‐raising flour” and “Baking Powder” must yield not less than forty‐five grains of carbon dioxide per pound, and ten per cent. by weight of carbon dioxide, respectively. “Corn‐flour” may be the starch powder derived from any variety of grain. “Infants' foods” must have statements on the label indicating the composition, source of ingredients and value in calories. “Dripping” and “Lard” must contain not more than two per cent. of free fatty acids, while so‐called “Edible Fats and Oils” must contain not more than one per cent. of free fatty acids. “Sausage meat” must contain not less than seventy‐five per cent. of meat. “Mar‐garine” must contain not less than one per cent. of starch, or, not less than five per cent. of sesame oil. “Milk” is described as the lacteal secretion of the cow. It must be clean and fresh, and must be obtained by completely emptying the udder of the healthy cow properly fed and kept, excluding that got during fifteen days immediately before, and ten days immediately following on parturition. It must contain not less than eight and five‐tenths parts per cent. of milk solids not fat, three and three‐tenths parts per cent. of milk fat, and not less than twelve parts per cent. of total solids; its freezing point must not be higher than 0.55°C., below zero as determined by the Winter method. It must not contain any pathogenic micro‐organisms. It must not contain more than one million micro‐organisms to the cubic centimetre from 1st of October to 31st of March, and not more than five hundred thousand micro‐organisms from 1st of April to 30th September. When subjected to the reductase test it must not completely decolourise the methylene blue in less than three hours. “Coffee” must contain not less than ten per cent. of fat. “Coffee essence” must contain not less than 0.5 per cent. of caffeine. “Coffee and chicory essence” must contain not less than 0.25 per cent. of caffeine. “Cocoa powder” must be free from added alkali. “Soluble cocoa” must not contain more than three per cent. of added alkali. “Chocolate” must contain not less than ten per cent. of fat‐free and alkali‐free cocoa. “Icecream” must contain not less than ten per cent. of milk fat. “Potable waters” must conform to certain bacteriological standards of purity. “Drugs” with certain exceptions, must conform to the standards of the British Pharmacopoeia and British Pharmaceutical Codex. “Soap” must contain not less than fifty‐nine per cent. of fatty acids. “Colouring matters.” A list of thirty‐one permitted colouring matters is given. The third section deals with the conditions under which food may be manufactured, stored, handled and sold. The state of the premises as regards construction, suitability and free‐dom from vermin. These regulations are similar to those contained in some of our Factory Acts and certain local Bye‐laws but appear to be more stringent.—Here again only a few of the more important points can be noted. Transportation of food must be conducted in specially constructed vehicles provided with adequate protection against contamination. No returned food must be resold. Exposed food must be protected against dust and insects. Printed paper must not be used for food wrapping. Dealers in second hand containers are compelled to thoroughly cleanse and sterilise them before re‐sale. The use of food containers for disinfectants or poisons is prohibited. Milk and dairy produce must not be handled by any person suffering from any infectious or contageous disease. Milk vessels must be constructed of suitable materials, be kept in good repair, be properly cleansed and of such a shape as to allow thorough cleansing and inspection. Milk vessels despatched to a retailer must be securely sealed. Any person delivering milk is prohibited from carrying water at the same time. No icecream which has become melted must be re‐frozen. Hotels, Boarding Houses, Restaurants, Refreshment Rooms, etc., must have proper and adequate accommodation for storage of foods and occupiers must take due precaution to prevent contamination. All utensils used must be kept in a clean condition and food must not be served out with the fingers. The occupier is also made responsible for the personal habits of the employees while handling food. Regulations are also made for the construction, maintenance and care of Bakehouses, Soda Fountains, Cold Stores, and Meat and Fish Shops. One section deals with the conduct of the business of a “chemist.” It would have been more suitable if the term “pharmacist” had been used here. Finally it is stated that the fees to be paid for analysis are, twenty‐one shillings for chemical analysis, and forty‐two shillings for bacteriological analysis, a more generous rate of pay than that mentioned in a recent Act passed in this Country. Any person contravening any of these Regulations is liable to a penalty of twenty pounds.