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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Katharine Ridgway O'Brien, Larry R. Martinez, Enrica N. Ruggs, Jan Rinehart and Michelle R Hebl

This paper aims to highlight interventions that promote female (and male) faculty’s ability to balance work-family issues at a specific academic institution, in response…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight interventions that promote female (and male) faculty’s ability to balance work-family issues at a specific academic institution, in response to a demand in the literature that examines the intersection between research and implementation of organizational policies within a university setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a case study framework, the researchers present qualitative experiences and quantitative data to evaluate the successful application of a work-family balance and organizational climate improvement initiative within an academic setting.

Findings

By highlighting specific examples of work-family and climate initiatives at the individual, organization, and community levels, this case study presents several ways in which academic institutions specifically, and organizations generally, can implement policies that make a difference.

Practical implications

Successful implementation of work-family balance and family-friendly organizational policies can positively impact employees.

Originality/value

Our goal is to highlight and provide data showing a specific example of how female (and male) faculty members’ experiences can be (and have been) improved in a prototype institution.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Enrica N. Ruggs, Michelle R. Hebl, Sarah Singletary Walker and Naomi Fa-Kaji

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive effects of gender and age on evaluations of job applicants. Given the double jeopardy hypothesis, the authors might…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive effects of gender and age on evaluations of job applicants. Given the double jeopardy hypothesis, the authors might anticipate that older women would be denigrated most in hiring evaluations. However, given expectations of normative gender behavior, the authors might anticipate that older men would be penalized most for not already having stable employment. This study aims to examine which hypothesis best describes selection biases based on age and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Stimuli depicting male and female job applicants at the various ages were developed. The stimuli were standardized by collecting facial photos of older White men and women at ages 20, 40, and 60, and morphing these faces onto standardized bodies using Adobe Photoshop. Participants viewed six stimuli, one from each age by gender combination, and made evaluations across job relevant dimensions.

Findings

Results showed an interaction between age and gender, such that older male applicants were evaluated more negatively than older female and younger male applicants. These findings support for the violation of gender normative behavior hypothesis.

Practical implications

This study has implications for organizational leaders who can use this information to provide training for selection officers concerning biases against older workers and how to avoid them.

Originality/value

Original, novel stimuli are used in an experimental design to examine the effects of age in employment in a standardized manner which controls for extraneous variables such as attractiveness across age.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Ho Kwan Cheung, Alex Lindsey, Eden King and Michelle R Hebl

Influence tactics are prevalent in the workplace and are linked to crucial outcomes such as career success and helping behaviours. The authors argue that sex role identity…

Abstract

Purpose

Influence tactics are prevalent in the workplace and are linked to crucial outcomes such as career success and helping behaviours. The authors argue that sex role identity affects women’s choice of influence tactics in the workplace, but they only receive positive performance ratings when their behaviours are congruent with gender role expectation. Furthermore, the authors hypothesize that these relationships may be moderated by occupational continuance commitment. Results suggest that femininity is negatively related to the use of influence tactics overall, and this relationship is moderated by occupational continuance commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 657 women working in the construction industry were surveyed for their continuance occupational commitment and sex role identity and 465 supervisors whose responses are linked with the subordinates are surveyed for the women’s influence tactics and performance ratings.

Findings

Results suggested that femininity was negatively related to the use of influence tactics overall, and this relationship was moderated by occupational continuance commitment. Results also showed that women’s use of influence tactics was only positively received in terms of performance ratings when the influence tactic was congruent with gender role expectations.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this current study suggest that not all women are equally likely to use influence tactics and not all tactics result in positive perceptions of performance. Feminine women in general refrain from using influence tactics unless they are driven to stay in a given occupation, but they only receive positive results when their behaviours are congruent with society’s gender role expectations.

Originality/value

Past research has mostly focused on broad differences between males and females, and this study has shown that there are more nuanced differences that can more accurately describe the effects of gender disposition (i.e. sex role identity) on influence tactics. It also emphasizes the importance of occupational commitment as a boundary condition, which influences women to step out of their gender roles even though they may be penalized with lower performance ratings.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Katharine Ridgway O'Brien and Michelle R Hebl

This study aims to foster work-family balance goals by evaluating the utility of two types of video-based realistic job previews on creating accurate expectations among…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to foster work-family balance goals by evaluating the utility of two types of video-based realistic job previews on creating accurate expectations among future academics.

Design/methodology/approach

The first realistic job preview divulged information specific to jobs in academia. The second divulged work-family balance information specific to academia. Participants viewed one of the two realistic job preview conditions or a third control condition in which they did not watch a realistic job preview. Participants then indicated their knowledge about job and work-family characteristics in academia and their changing expectations.

Findings

Results supported both types of realistic job previews as a way to communicate information about academia, and individuals also expressed changing their own expectations as a result of viewing the realistic job previews.

Originality/value

This study implemented a classic tool – the realistic job preview – to communicate work-family balance information in a new and dynamic way.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Camille Kapoor and Juan M. Madera

The purpose of this paper is to present industry perspectives on diversity research for the hospitality industry. This piece transcribes a panel discussion at the 2010…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present industry perspectives on diversity research for the hospitality industry. This piece transcribes a panel discussion at the 2010 Hospitality Industry Diversity Institute Conference.

Design/methodology/approach

The panel discussion created dialogue between industry professionals and academic researchers with the goal of creating research on a variety of diversity topics that are meaningful to the hospitality industry. The variety of topics include visible tattoos in the workplace, multicultural travelers, attracting minority employees to the hospitality industry, and a general discussion of various issues central to the industry.

Findings

As a result of this discussion, researchers have learned that there are potential research opportunities regarding many of the topics presented in the discussion panel. Specifically, there is an interest in research regarding consumer perceptions of visible tattoos on employees; understanding what motivates and influences multicultural travelers in their travel decisions; how to attract minorities to choose the hospitality industry as a career; and general comments and concerns about research such as the need to make findings “relevant and applicable.” “We need industry support, especially gaining access and collecting data” (Dr Fevzi Okumus), and feedback should be stressed to make sure “the right thing is happening from a customer's perspective” (Tom Cusimano).

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed in the areas of how tattoos can influence the customer's experience, what is driving the multicultural traveler's decisions, what career paths are minorities choosing, and how the hospitality industry may successfully attract minorities to make their career in the field.

Originality/value

The paper provides original material from industry professionals and academic researchers. This piece is valuable for members of both the industry and academic community to help each better understand the needs of one another, including the need for collaboration from organizations in research from the academic community, and the need for research from the industry as well as practical application of results.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Michelle Hebl, Laura Barron, Cody Brent Cox and Abigail R. Corrington

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the limited body of research that focuses on the efficacy of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation in reducing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the limited body of research that focuses on the efficacy of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation in reducing discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviews past research that documents overt and subtle forms of workplace discrimination against gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals and describes how legislation plays an important role in changing social norms and underlying attitudes.

Findings

Empirically demonstrates that legislation effectively can reduce discrimination.

Originality/value

Informs legislative debate and promotes the expansion and adoption of national, state, and local legislation on sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Christine Nittrouer, Katharine Ridgway O’Brien, Michelle Hebl, Rachel C.E. Trump-Steele, Danielle M. Gardner and John Rodgers

There has been a great deal of research published on the lower success rates of women and underrepresented (UR) students in Science, technology, engineering, and…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a great deal of research published on the lower success rates of women and underrepresented (UR) students in Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related (STEM) occupations. For biomedical scientists in particular, many of the obstacles to success occur during graduate training and may be related, at least in part, to certain demographic characteristics (i.e. gender or ethnicity). In particular, women and UR students may be positioned disproportionately into labs with fewer resources and less productive faculty advisors. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study examines the distribution of biomedical science graduate students into research laboratories, based on the gender and ethnicity of both students and faculty advisors. This is archival data that were collected via publicly available information on the internet.

Findings

Results indicate that female (vs male) students and UR (vs white and Asian) students are paired with advisors who are less successful (i.e. fewer publications, lower h-indices). Additionally, the data show patterns of homophily in that female (vs male) and white and Asian (vs UR) students are more likely to be paired with female and white and Asian advisors, respectively.

Originality/value

This research uses real-world, archival data to demonstrate that phenomena suggested in previous literature (e.g. less favorable pairings for female and UR students, homophilic pairings) occurs with this specific population.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2018

Abby Corrington and Michelle Hebl

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the ways gender influenced the 2016 presidential election, as well as ways in which the USA might progress to become a more…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the ways gender influenced the 2016 presidential election, as well as ways in which the USA might progress to become a more gender-egalitarian nation.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a combination of voter data, psychological theories – including sexism, social role theory, stereotype content model, group status threat, and system justification theory – and opinions, this paper explores the factors that drove the 2016 presidential election outcome.

Findings

This paper asserts that while there were reasons other than gender that people voted the way they did in the 2016 presidential election, these reasons were ancillary to the role that gender bias and stereotypes played. It concludes with a call to action, arguing that: more women need to enter into politics, each of us must recognize our own and make others aware of their overt sexism and subtle biases, the public must acknowledge and change the often double standards that exist for women but not men, and we must realize that a win for women is also often a win for men.

Originality/value

The value lies in introducing a social psychological lens focused on gender to the 2016 presidential election. This paper combines data, theory, and broader opinions to present a compelling perspective on the election in a way that, to our knowledge, has not been done before.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Ilias Kapareliotis and Georgia-Zozeta Miliopoulou

The purpose of this chapter is to combine research findings around gender bias and the challenges women face in academia, and to present a unified conceptual framework…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to combine research findings around gender bias and the challenges women face in academia, and to present a unified conceptual framework. Ample research indicates that the issue is far from sufficiently addressed. Even in cases where policies are in place, mediocre outcomes are observed. Fewer women climb the ladder of academic progression all the way up to senior positions, especially in certain institutions and certain disciplines.

Design/Methodology/Approach

After thoroughly reviewing the literature, the authors integrate and organize the different multifaceted causes that appear to obstruct women in academia. They propose a scheme that divides between contextual and non-contextual factors, emphasizing their interplay.

Findings

Even when policies are in place, they appear to have limited results, because they mainly address isolated factors rather than taking a multifaceted, integrative approach.

Research Limitations/Implications

Future research should further examine the interplay of contextual and non-contextual factors by combining multiple variables that contribute to gender bias in academia.

Practical Implications

Policy-making should consider both contextual and non-contextual factors, thus providing more integrative solutions and taking a broader perspective on the issue.

Originality/Value

Despite the ample and rising amount of research findings, there is no coherent framework to adequately include all the factors that contribute to gender bias in academia. By integrating and organizing the different, multifaceted causes already pointed out by previous findings, the authors hope to contribute to future research with specific variables to test and correlate, as well as to the formulation of more sophisticated policies.

Details

Diversity within Diversity Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-172-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Nga Thi Tuyet Phan and Terry Locke

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of culture on the sense of self-efficacy in teaching English as a Foreign Language of a group of university teachers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of culture on the sense of self-efficacy in teaching English as a Foreign Language of a group of university teachers in Vietnam. Research exploring the relationship between culture and self-efficacy is extremely rare despite the acknowledged importance of culture in the formation of self-efficacy beliefs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study took the form of qualitative research with diverse, data collection instruments: individual interviews, focus group discussions, observations and journaling.

Findings

Findings indicate that certain features of the Vietnamese cultural context impacted on the way the study teachers constructed their sense of self-efficacy. Specifically, under the influence of a Vietnamese sense of belonging, the study teachers tended to rely more on efficacy-building information from other people rather than from themselves. The perception of inequality in power may have heightened negative emotional arousal, thus contributing to a negative sense of self-efficacy among the teachers. The Vietnamese concept of face and the high status of teachers in the social hierarchy in part mediated teachers’ sense of self-efficacy.

Social implications

The perceived burden of performing both parenting and teaching roles and responsibilities may have diminished the self-efficacy in teaching of female teachers.

Originality/value

The contribution and implications of the study are discussed.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

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