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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2021

Michelle Brown, Christina Cregan, Carol T. Kulik and Isabel Metz

Voluntary collective turnover can be costly for workplaces. The authors investigate the effectiveness of high-performance work system (HPWS) intensity as a tool to manage…

Abstract

Purpose

Voluntary collective turnover can be costly for workplaces. The authors investigate the effectiveness of high-performance work system (HPWS) intensity as a tool to manage voluntary collective turnover. Further, the authors investigate a cynical workplace climate (CWC) as a boundary condition on the HPWS intensity–voluntary collective turnover relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The unit of analysis is the workplace, with human resource (HR) managers providing data on HPWS practices in Time 1 (T1) and voluntary collective turnover two years later. Aggregated employee data were used to assess the cynical workplace climate. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

This study’s results demonstrate a negative relationship between HPWS intensity and voluntary collective turnover when there is a low cynical workplace climate. The authors find that in a high cynical workplace climate, HPWS intensity is ineffective at managing voluntary collective turnover.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s results show that HPWS intensity needs to be well received by the workforce to be effective in reducing voluntary collective turnover.

Practical implications

To increase the chances of HPWS intensity reducing voluntary collective turnover, workplaces need to assess the level of employee cynicism in their workplace climates. When the climate is assessed as low in cynicism, the workplace can then consider implementing an HPWS.

Originality/value

The authors explain why the HPWS intensity–voluntary collective turnover relationship varies across workplaces. As HR practices are subject to interpretation, workplaces need to look beyond the practices in their HPWS and focus on employee receptivity to HR practices.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Michelle Brown, Maria L. Kraimer and Virginia K. Bratton

Using job demands–resources (JD–R) theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job demands (difficult performance appraisal (PA) objectives) and job…

Abstract

Purpose

Using job demands–resources (JD–R) theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of job demands (difficult performance appraisal (PA) objectives) and job resources (performance feedback and leader member exchange (LMX)) on employee reports of PA cynicism. The paper also investigates the consequences of PA cynicism on intent to quit and bad sportsmanship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data on PA demands and resources, PA cynicism and turnover intentions were obtained from employees. Supervisors rated their employees’ level of sportsmanship.

Findings

Contrary to the predictions of JD–R theory, the authors found that employees are most likely to be cynical when they experience high levels of job resources (LMX and performance feedback) and high levels of job demands (difficult objectives).

Research limitations/implications

The study demonstrates that PA cynicism matters – employees with higher levels of PA cynicism were more likely to contemplate leaving the organization; employees with high levels of PA cynicism are rated as bad sports by their supervisors.

Practical implications

Employees are sensitive to gaps between the description and reality of a PA process which can trigger thoughts of organizational exit and ineffective work behaviors. human resource managers need to ensure that employees regard the PA process as valuable, useful and worth their time and effort.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the PA literature by investigating the role of both job resources and demands. PA research has focused on the specification of job demands, underplaying the role of job resources in employee attitudes toward PA.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Isabel Metz, Carol T. Kulik, Christina Cregan and Michelle Brown

Managers develop psychological contracts (PCs) with staff as part of their people management responsibilities. A second-stage mediated moderation model explains how a…

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2046

Abstract

Purpose

Managers develop psychological contracts (PCs) with staff as part of their people management responsibilities. A second-stage mediated moderation model explains how a manager’s personality influences the content and fulfillment of PCs in different organizational contexts. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 749 managers at Australian organizations were collected and regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. The Edwards and Lambert (2007) approach was used to analyze conditional indirect effects.

Findings

Managers high on agreeableness, conscientiousness and extraversion are more likely to establish relational PCs with their staff than managers low on these personality traits. The effects of agreeableness and conscientiousness on the fulfillment of the PC occur through the “relational PC” variable. Once a relational PC is established, a manager’s ability to fulfill the PC is constrained by the extent to which polices and practices are formalized.

Research limitations/implications

Organizations may need to delegate more power and discretion to managers to enable them to fulfill employer obligations toward their staff, and/or clearly communicate to managers their boundaries in employment promises. In turn, managers need to be aware of personality’s influence on the creation and fulfillment of promises. Causality cannot be inferred because of the study’s cross-sectional data.

Originality/value

Research has focused on employees’ personality and perceptions of the PC. This study is the first to focus on managers’ personality and PC creation and fulfillment.

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2014

Doran Larson

Abstract

Details

Special Issue: The Beautiful Prison
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-966-9

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Steve Brown and Alison Hutton

The purpose of this paper is to explore recent technological and methodological developments in the evaluation of audience behaviour at planned events and discuss the…

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4778

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore recent technological and methodological developments in the evaluation of audience behaviour at planned events and discuss the implications for researchers in this field, particularly the advantages of evaluating in real‐time. The creation and staging of the event experience – the realm of event design – is predicated on an understanding of the psychosocial domain of the audience. By understanding the motivations, the behaviours and the predispositions that the audience brings to the event, and how event design principles and techniques can be applied to influence audience behaviour in real time, the event designer is able to more successfully create and stage the event experience to meet the aims and objectives of the event.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses international developments in the evaluation of the psychosocial domain of audiences at planned events and the range of research methodologies being used from a practitioner academic perspective. The paper will look at current research being undertaken in Sweden, Austria and Australia and identify trends internationally in this nascent field of research.

Findings

The paper argues that real time data collection of audiences provides insights into the effective design and management of planned events, particularly from the event risk management perspective.

Practical implications

Drawing on work being undertaken in the mass gatherings, tourism and service fields, the paper examines and synthesises these into a proposed model for the effective evaluation of the event audience.

Originality/value

This paper argues for an increase in – and a model for – research on audience behaviour, specifically in the real time capture and analysis of data of audiences at events as a means of developing and understanding of the effects of event design techniques applied at planned events.

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Stuart Hannabuss

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134

Abstract

Details

Library Review, vol. 58 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2014

Michelle Brown

Metaphorically, the garden invokes a repertoire of skills, arts, and virtues that run counter to the act of confinement but are embedded in its disciplinary practice…

Abstract

Metaphorically, the garden invokes a repertoire of skills, arts, and virtues that run counter to the act of confinement but are embedded in its disciplinary practice: spaces in punitive environments where care, growth, health, and cultivation are emphasized. Gardens and the force of law and labor are foregrounded in Judeo-Christian myths, in slavery, and in prison farms as spaces of expulsion and brutality. Yet as abandoned, fortress-style prisons dilapidate, and vines and weeds break through concrete, we can begin to ask, What might it mean to imagine the prison through the lens of the garden?

Details

Special Issue: The Beautiful Prison
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-966-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Michelle Lynn Kaarst‐Brown and Daniel Robey

Much research on information technology (IT) emphasizes the rational aspects of IT use. However, cultural analyses have considered IT as a symbolic artifact open to social…

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4769

Abstract

Much research on information technology (IT) emphasizes the rational aspects of IT use. However, cultural analyses have considered IT as a symbolic artifact open to social interpretation. This article presents findings from ethnographic studies of two large insurance organizations to illustrate how cultural assumptions about IT are implicated in IT management. We employ the metaphor of magic as an interpretive lens to generate five archetypes of IT culture: the revered, controlled, demystified, integrated, and fearful IT cultures. Each of these archetypal cultural patterns reflects different assumptions about the “magic” of IT and the “wizards” who control its powers. These patterns are similar to social responses to the unknown that have been found in human cultures for hundreds of years. The metaphor itself was drawn from the language of the two organizations. All five archetypes were manifest in both of the companies studied, suggesting that organizations do not necessarily develop unified symbolic meanings of IT. Although separately each archetype invites novel insights into the management of IT in organizations, together they reveal even deeper interpretations consistent with contemporary theories of cultural differentiation and fragmentation.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Michelle Brown, Carol T. Kulik and Victoria Lim

Delivering negative feedback to employees is highly problematic for managers. Negative feedback is important in generating improvements in employee performance, but likely…

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4742

Abstract

Purpose

Delivering negative feedback to employees is highly problematic for managers. Negative feedback is important in generating improvements in employee performance, but likely to generate adverse employee reactions. However, if managers do not address poor performance, good performers may become demoralized or exit the organization. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managers communicate negative feedback and the factors that drive their choice of tactic.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use interview data from practicing line managers with experience in delivering negative feedback to learn whether their tactic choices are consistent with Implicit (“best practice”) or Contingency (“best fit”) theory.

Findings

The authors identify five negative feedback tactics: evidence, emotive and communication tactics are foundation tactics while evidence + communication and evidence + emotive tactics are bundles of the foundation tactics. Managers apply a “best fit” approach from a set of “best practice” negative feedback options. The choice of negative feedback tactic is driven by the manager’s assessment of the “best fit” with the employee’s personality.

Research limitations/implications

Most of the managers believed that their negative feedback tactic had been effective. Future researchers should investigate which negative feedback tactics employees regard as most effective.

Practical implications

A best fit approach to the delivery of negative feedback requires organizations to give managers discretion in the delivery of negative feedback. Managers may mis-assess fit which can undermine the effectiveness of the appraisal process.

Originality/value

The authors focus on how negative feedback is communicated by managers. Existing research focusses on reactions to negative feedback without taking into account how it is delivered.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2010

Michelle Brown, Douglas Hyatt and John Benson

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of low quality performance appraisals (PA) on three human resource management outcomes (job satisfaction, organisational…

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24500

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of low quality performance appraisals (PA) on three human resource management outcomes (job satisfaction, organisational commitment and intention to quit).

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 2,336 public sector employees clusters of PA experiences (low, mixed and high) were identified. Regression analysis was then employed to examine the relationship between low quality PA experiences and job satisfaction, organisational commitment and intention to quit.

Findings

Employees with low quality PA experiences (relative to those with mixed and high quality PA experiences) were more likely to be dissatisfied with their job, be less committed to the organisation and more likely to be contemplating leaving the organisation.

Research limitations/implications

The data were collected in a large public sector research organisation where the results of the appraisal were linked to pay increments. Further research is needed to determine the applicability of the results to private sector employees.

Practical implications

The quality of the PA experience varies and a low quality experience results in lower job satisfaction and organisational commitment and higher quit intentions. The challenge for human resource (HR) practitioners is to decide whether the allocation of additional resources to ensure that all employees have a uniformly high quality PA experience is a worthwhile investment.

Originality/value

Research has tended to focus on the relationship between a single feature of a PA process and HR outcomes. Organisations need to acknowledge the importance of the overall PA experience when evaluating its consequences for HRM outcomes.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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