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This paper aims to offer a marketing perspective to the multidisciplinary debate on whether religion is expanding, declining or resurging in contemporary and allegedly…
This paper aims to offer a marketing perspective to the multidisciplinary debate on whether religion is expanding, declining or resurging in contemporary and allegedly secular society. Specifically, it examines the “secularization hypothesis”, which predicts that religion tends to lose its central role in people’s lives as secular reasoning spreads and scientific knowledge accumulates.
Borrowing from psychology literature, the authors identify the psychological and social needs satisfied by religion and in doing so uncover its functions. They then discussed whether religion can be claimed to be functionally obsolete.
The authors identified four functions of religion: explanatory, relieving, membership and moral. The content of religious doctrines offers consumers of religion unambiguous knowledge, absolute morality and promises of immortality, immanent justice and centrality in the universe. Religion also provides a social identity, through which people can build meaningful connections with others in the community and with their own history.
A change in the role of religion would be highly relevant for consumer research because religious ideologies shape consumption practices, social relations, products and brands. The authors observe that the content of religious answers is so well-crafted around human psychology that the explaining, relieving and moral functions of religion have not lost reliability. However, cultural change has weakened religion’s ability to gratify human psychology through social identity and meaningful socialization, which led to the marketization of religion, the rise of spirituality and the intensification of socialization around consumption.
Although corporate social responsibility–corporate financial performance (CSR-CFP) research topics have been widely investigated, previous research has yet to examine the…
Although corporate social responsibility–corporate financial performance (CSR-CFP) research topics have been widely investigated, previous research has yet to examine the relationship between the specific dimension of CSR and CFP among Malaysian public-listed companies. Through literature review, it has been found that the CSR-CFP studies conducted in Malaysia have omitted the role of workplace diversity dimension in contribution to CFP. Failure to consider this variable may risk misrepresenting the relationship between CSR and CFP, thereby preclude consensus on the direction of the relationship between the variables. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between individual CSR dimensions and CFP.
Design Methodology Approach
By using the CSR dimension disclosure-scoring method and cross-sectional data analysis, this research has conducted a content analysis on annual reports of the sample companies to evaluate the influence of CSR practices on companies’ profitability during 2015.
The results show that companies displaying CSR behavior are associated with higher CFP. That is to say, there is a positive relationship between CSR and CFP. However, the result has further revealed that the five CSR dimensions in isolation would differently associate with the two proxies of CFP.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study in Malaysia that considers workplace diversity issues as one of the dimensions of CSR. The findings will thus bring new insights into CSR application in Malaysia and its association with the CFP.