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Today’s technology‐fueled change, often referred to as Web 2.0, is transforming HR’s interaction with employees and managers. A key element of Web 2.0 is social media…
Today’s technology‐fueled change, often referred to as Web 2.0, is transforming HR’s interaction with employees and managers. A key element of Web 2.0 is social media, which can take many different forms, including text, images, audio and video.
This case features a county planning director as he approves or turns down a permit application for the Harvest Wind Farm Project, located in Klickitat County on the…
This case features a county planning director as he approves or turns down a permit application for the Harvest Wind Farm Project, located in Klickitat County on the Columbia Plateau in Washington State. The utilities involved and Klickitat County stood to benefit through new revenue generation and a favorable federal construction grant associated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and certain landowners stood to make substantial royalties. However, other landowners were also worried about declining property values, environmental groups had raised objections to the effect of turbines on the pristine Columbia River view, and uncertainty about health effects had recently become more of an issue. Nationally, “wind turbine syndrome” and “shadow-flicker” effects had been linked to wind farm operations. Given these concerns and the uncertainty, would the gains to stakeholders justify signing off on the project?
Environmental management systems (EMS) first appeared in North America in the 1970s and are now widely used by commercial companies and other organisations in all parts of…
Environmental management systems (EMS) first appeared in North America in the 1970s and are now widely used by commercial companies and other organisations in all parts of the developed world. Although various systems exist, the most important are ISO 14001 and the European Union's EMAS. This paper examines these systems, outlines their respective strengths and weaknesses, and discusses their varying popularity in different countries.
This paper surveys the evidence that environmental auditing systems (EMSs), and the standard setting bodies represented by ISO 14001 and EMAS, have failed to meet their…
This paper surveys the evidence that environmental auditing systems (EMSs), and the standard setting bodies represented by ISO 14001 and EMAS, have failed to meet their objectives on two counts. First, the standards will not lead to sustainability and second, they will not be any more economically efficient than the command and control approach. We begin by offering an historical overview of environmental standards and argue that the original intentions to link the environmental management standards with sustainability was abandoned during discussions. The opposing viewpoints about ISO 14001 and EMAS as market driven standards are discussed and then the degree of market penetration of the standards is examined. The costs of implementing an EMS are discussed in the context of the Swiss experience, and the costs to SMEs of EMSs outlined. Practical difficulties associated with the standards are considered, and the question asked, “Do EMSs lead to environmental improvement?”
Examines the emergence of environmental legislation and the response of organizations. Most legal academics have attempted to explain these responses in the context of…
Examines the emergence of environmental legislation and the response of organizations. Most legal academics have attempted to explain these responses in the context of rational choice theory, using an economic framework such as the rational polluter model. Argues that whilst the rational polluter model offers a partial explanation of organizations’ behaviour in response to environmental legislation, it does not explain why the majority of organizations are law abiding. Examines work on legitimacy theory, and by drawing on that work and placing it in the context of case law, suggests that it offers a better explanatory framework.
In May 2004 the European Union expanded. Although most of the new member states have serious environmental problems, all are required to accept EU environmental legislation and standards. This article outlines and compares the main environmental policy instruments available to the governments of these countries: command and control regulation; market‐based instruments; voluntary agreements and informational devices. Particular attention is given to the promotion of environmental auditing.
Gives an account of how the agencies in one county worked together to produce and disseminate a drugs education project for primary schools. Provides a description of the project’s aims, structure and elements. Concludes by indicating the way forward for the partnership.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the professional context of the educator and architects who designed and conceived Woodleigh School in Baxter, Victoria, Australia…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the professional context of the educator and architects who designed and conceived Woodleigh School in Baxter, Victoria, Australia (1974-1979) and to identify common design threads in a series of schools designed by Daryl Jackson and Evan Walker in the 1970s.
The research was derived from academic and professional publications, film footage, interviews, archival searches and site visits. Standard analytical methods in architectural research are employed, including formal, planning and morphological analysis, to read building designs for meaning and intent. Books, people and buildings were examined to piece together the design “biography” of Woodleigh School, the identification of which forms the basis of the paper's argument.
Themes of loose fit, indeterminate planning, coupled with concepts of classroom as house, and school as town, and engagement with a landscape environment are drawn together under principal Michael Norman's favoured phrase that adolescents might experience “a slice of life”, preparing them for broader engagement with a world and a community outside school. The themes reflect changing aspirations for teenage education in the 1970s, indicating a free and experimental approach to the design of the school environment.
The paper considers, for the first time, the interconnected role of educator and architect as key protagonists in envisioning connections between space and pedagogy in the 1970s alternative school.
Environmental law is relatively new, but legislation is developing rapidly. More prosecutions for environmental offences are taking place annually. Much of the legislation…
Environmental law is relatively new, but legislation is developing rapidly. More prosecutions for environmental offences are taking place annually. Much of the legislation is based on the “command and control” approach. This approach has been criticised and market based alternatives advocated. Market failure suggests that an absolute trust in markets is misplaced. Alternative solutions to the regulatory problem have been sought in self‐disclosure. Self‐disclosure is the policy approach of the EPA and is contingent upon an environmental audit. Although this is a regulatory approach there are both legal and economic benefits accruing to firms from environmental auditing and self‐disclosure. But with the benefits come risks. The risk element has led the US legal profession to seek “evidentiary privilege”, but the EPA has rejected this.
This article traces the evolution of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from the 1960s to the present. The authors show how public and political concerns for the environment raised the profile of CSR but how corporations’ control over their environmental disclosure and the lack of an agreed international reporting system for accounts can lead to what they describe as a “greenwashing” effect.