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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Ana Azevedo, Ellen A. Drost and Michael R. Mullen

Examines critically the bulk of cross‐cultural research involving the constructs of individualism and collectivism. Highlights some of the main conceptual and methodological…

2019

Abstract

Examines critically the bulk of cross‐cultural research involving the constructs of individualism and collectivism. Highlights some of the main conceptual and methodological shortcomings in the use of these constructs and the need for refinement and synthesis in definition and measurement. Suggests a research strategy that integrates previous empirical findings in a theory‐driven approach. Proposes multiple group confirmatory factor analysis as a technique for confirming a 2‐2 factor structure for individualism and collectivism and for testing the equivalence of their measures across culturally diverse groups.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Shirley Ye Sheng and Michael R. Mullen

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new model for export market opportunity analysis by combining the marketing‐based overall market opportunity index (OMOI) with the…

5214

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new model for export market opportunity analysis by combining the marketing‐based overall market opportunity index (OMOI) with the economic‐based gravity model in order to more accurately assess export market potential, in total and for specific industries.

Design/methodology/approach

Variables from the gravity and OMOI models are used to analyze export market opportunities for specific industries. Findings – Market size, economic intensity, geographic and language distance, and regional trade agreements (RTAs) are found to be strong predictors of export market attractiveness from a US firm's perspective. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is found to act as both a substitute for and a complement to exports. Cultural distance, based on Hofstede, is not a significant predictor for exports.

Originality/value

The authors' hybrid model extends previous OMOI models and is applied to industry‐level analysis.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2008

Gary Garrison, Michael Harvey and Nancy Napier

This paper examines the role of managerial curiosity as a critical factor in determining the future impact of disruptive information technologies in a global organization…

Abstract

This paper examines the role of managerial curiosity as a critical factor in determining the future impact of disruptive information technologies in a global organization. Specifically, this paper presents curiosity as a managerial characteristic that plays an important role in identifying disruptive information technologies and facilitating their early adoption. Further, it uses resource‐based theory as a theoretical lens to illustrate how managerial curiosity can be a source of sustained competitive advantage. Finally, it examines the individual decision styles that are best suited in assessing disruptive information technologies.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1306-6

Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2006

Michael R. Mullen and Shirley Ye Sheng

The imperatives of globalization are clear across many industries: firms must look to expand into international markets to survive and thrive. This study complements and extends a…

Abstract

The imperatives of globalization are clear across many industries: firms must look to expand into international markets to survive and thrive. This study complements and extends a growing body of work developing and using overall market opportunity indexes (OMOIs) based on Cavusgil (1997) to rank the attractiveness of potential foreign markets. The index developed in this paper assesses countries’ market potential beyond the traditional measures of market size and economic development by also including political risk, economic freedom, telecommunications as well as physical infrastructure and geographic distance. We provide a current analysis of market attractiveness and opportunity for the largest set of countries indexed and ranked to date, including 24 countries not in previous OMOI studies. The validity of the OMOI is also so assessed for the first time by comparing the ranking of market opportunity to actual subsequent trade flows from the US. Furthermore, we compare the dimensions, variables, samples and results from three of Cavusgil and colleague's previous studies and the two conducted herein. The choice of sample and, to a lesser degree, weights are shown to directly affect the OMOIs and rankings. The modified OMOI is shown to be a flexible, valid and fairly stable tool for preliminary analysis of foreign market opportunity.

Details

International Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-369-3

Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2003

Michael R Mullen, C.M Sashi and Patricia M Doney

Market entry strategies range from foreign direct investment to licensing with varying levels of commitment, risk and opportunity. Exporting products or services is one of the…

Abstract

Market entry strategies range from foreign direct investment to licensing with varying levels of commitment, risk and opportunity. Exporting products or services is one of the most common of the intermediate market entry strategies. It is typically accomplished through authorized international channels of distribution. However, when significant price differences exist between markets, alternative, parallel channels of distribution are almost certain to arise. These parallel channels, often referred to as gray marketing, are generally legal but unauthorized distribution channels that create an alternative export market entry. After a review of the literature, a case study highlights these complex issues from the perspective of both manufacturer and parallel marketer. The case study provides a tool for evaluating theory and a basis for discussing this important alternative mode of market entry. The case and the discussion which follows also highlight the role of international trade shows as an important element of the marketing mix for entering many foreign markets.

Details

Reviving Traditions in Research on International Market Entry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-044-9

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Daire Hooper, Joseph Coughlan and Michael R. Mullen

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the servicescape should be subsumed as a dimension within service quality conceptualizations or whether it is a unique construct in…

10854

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the servicescape should be subsumed as a dimension within service quality conceptualizations or whether it is a unique construct in itself which precedes service quality evaluations and behavioral intentions. The authors both propose and operationalize this model and in doing so make a theoretical contribution by demonstrating how a delineation between these two constructs is necessary in order for theory to progress in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 355 customers were intercepted as they exited a retail store and surveyed using a structured questionnaire. The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

This paper finds that it is more appropriate to model the servicescape as a separate construct which precedes service quality thus highlighting a need for a demarcation to be made between these important constructs. In addition, the authors find that design is a significant contributor to behavioral intentions further confirming the necessity to manage service environments in order to generate repatronage behaviors.

Practical implications

Service providers should consider the influence of store environments in shaping service quality perceptions and their subsequent impact on behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the existing literature by disentangling the complicated relationships between service environments, service quality and behavioral intentions. Furthermore, the findings indicate to practitioners which aspects of the servicescape require attention so as to maximize repatronage intentions.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Desislava G. Budeva and Michael R. Mullen

This paper aims to investigate the influence of economic and cultural factors, separately and combined, on international country segments and to reveal the stability of factors…

15234

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of economic and cultural factors, separately and combined, on international country segments and to reveal the stability of factors and country segments over time.

Design/methodology/approach

Principal component analysis is used to develop three economic factors and two cultural factors borrowed from the World Value Survey. Cluster analysis is used to form country clusters based on the economic and cultural factors, separately, and then combined, to detect whether both economics and culture need to be included as bases for macro-country segmentation. Further, the authors look at these issues across time, the beginning of the decade (1990) and then at the end of the decade (1999).

Findings

Results support the hypotheses that economics and culture are both necessary for country-level segmentation but reject the hypothesis of cultural convergence as a consequence of technological development and industrialization. The authors confirm that cultural values and beliefs, although persistent, may change gradually under the influence of environmental forces such as economic development. The results support the instability of country segment membership when analyzed over one decade. Economic changes in some countries lead to their movement across segments.

Practical implications

Results suggest that managers concerned with international segmentation should include both economic and cultural variables and reevaluate country segment membership continuously rather than relying on results obtained in a single period.

Originality/value

Many international segmentation studies have used macro-level, secondary data to identify country clusters based on similarities in political, economic, geographic or cultural variables for a single period. This study extends existing international segmentation models by examining economic and cultural variables (separately, and then combined), and segment membership over time.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2009

Melody L. Wollan, Mary F. Sully de Luque and Marko Grunhagen

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of in‐group…

Abstract

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of in‐group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, and humane orientation, and their differential effect on helping extra‐role behavior in a diverse workforce are examined. Theoretical implications provide guidance for future empirical research in this area, and provide managers with more realistic expectations of employee performance in the workplace.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Brenda Sternquist, Carol A. Finnegan and Zhengyi Chen

China’s economy is transforming at a brisk pace. A partially dismantled command economy and introduction of competition have fueled consumer demand for a greater selection of…

Abstract

China’s economy is transforming at a brisk pace. A partially dismantled command economy and introduction of competition have fueled consumer demand for a greater selection of innovative new products in the retail market. The challenge for retail buyers is to adjust their procurement processes to respond to consumer needs in an efficient and effective manner. This study examines factors influencing buyer‐supplier relationships in a transition economy. We present a model to explain the factors driving retail buyer dependence on suppliers. We find that retailer evaluation of supplier credibility mediates the relationship between retailer perceptions of a supplier ability to add value to its business and the ability to achieve its desired goals. In part, this is due to the supplier’s market orientation. Interestingly, guanxi ties have no impact on the retailer perceptions of the supplier credibility, but have a positive affect on retailer dependence on its supplier partners.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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