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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Steve O. Michael and Michael Schwartz

While boards of trustees have statutory authority over higher education institutions in the USA, how these boards exercise their power varies. The literature of higher…

Abstract

While boards of trustees have statutory authority over higher education institutions in the USA, how these boards exercise their power varies. The literature of higher education suggests a diminishing trustees’ presence and power across campuses in the nation. Recently, there have been many calls for trustee activism. But, the question: “what is the role of the trustees?” continues to be asked. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate, from the trustees themselves, what this role is and to analyze their responses on the bases of sectors, gender, educational backgrounds, and years of experience. The study concluded that role differences existed among sectors of higher education, limited differences based on gender, educational levels, and years of experience were found. Overall, the traditional role of trustees was upheld as the primary role of the board of trustees. The article recommends that an effective orientation program be offered to new trustees, board membership be diversified to include more women and minority members, and discussion of trustees’ role be done with attention to differences in sectors.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2021

Michael O’ Regan, Noel B. Salazar, Jaeyeon Choe and Dimitrios Buhalis

As tourism destinations grapple with declines in tourist arrivals due to COVID-19 measures, scholarly debate on overtourism remains active, with discussions on solutions…

Abstract

Purpose

As tourism destinations grapple with declines in tourist arrivals due to COVID-19 measures, scholarly debate on overtourism remains active, with discussions on solutions that could be enacted to contain the excessive regrowth of tourism and the return of “overtourism”. As social science holds an important role and responsibility to inform the debate on overtourism, this paper aims to understand overtourism by examining it as a discursive formation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores recurring thematic threads in scholarly overtourism texts, given the phrases coherence as a nodal-point is partially held in place by a collective body of texts authored by a network of scholars who have invested in it. The paper uses interdiscursivity as an interpretative framework to identify overlapping thematic trajectories found in existing discourses.

Findings

Overtourism, as a discursive formation, determines what can and should be said about the self-evident “truths” of excessive tourist arrivals, the changes tourists bring to destinations and the range of discursive solutions available to manage or end overtourism. As the interpellation of these thematic threads into scholarly texts is based on a sense of crisis and urgency, the authors find that the themes contain rhetoric, arguments and metaphors that problematise tourists and construct them as objects in need of control and correction.

Originality/value

While the persistence of the discursive formation will be determined by the degree to which scholarly and other actors recognise themselves in it, this paper may enable overtourism scholars to become aware of the limits of their discursive domain and help them to expand the discourse or weave a new one.

设计/方法论/方法

本文探讨了过度旅游研究文本中反复出现的主题线索, 鉴于这些短语连贯性作为一个节点, 由学者们组成的网络所研究的一组文本所组成。本文将互辩作为一个解释框架来识别现有语篇中重叠的主题轨迹。

目的

随着旅游目的地应对因新冠病毒−19措施而导致的游客人数下降, 关于过度旅游的学术辩论仍然活跃, 通过讨论可以制定的解决方案, 以遏制旅游业的过度再生和“过度旅游”的再现。由于社会科学在有关过度旅游的辩论中扮演着重要的角色和责任, 本文试图通过将其作为一种话语形式进行考察来理解过度旅游。

结果

作为一种话语形式, 过度旅游展现了过量游客所带来的不言而喻的“真相”、游客给目的地带来的变化以及可用于管理或结束过度旅游的一系列解决方案。由于这些主题线索在学术文本中的质询是基于危机感和紧迫感, 我们发现这些主题包含修辞、论据和隐喻, 使游客感到困惑, 并将其构建为需要控制和纠正的对象。

创新/价值

尽管话语形成的持续性将取决于学者和其他参与者在其中认识到自己的程度, 但本文可能会使过度旅游学者意识到其话语领域的局限性, 并帮助他们扩展话语或构建新的话语。

Propósito

A medida que los destinos turísticos lidian con la disminución de las llegadas de turistas debido a las medidas del COVID-19, el debate académico sobre el “sobreturismo” permanece activo, con discusiones sobre soluciones que podrían promulgarse para contener el crecimiento excesivo del turismo y el regreso del “sobreturismo”. La ciencia tiene un papel importante y una responsabilidad en informar sobre el debate del “sobreturismo”, este artículo busca entender el constructo de “sobreturismo”, examinándolo como una formación discursiva.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El artículo explora los hilos temáticos recurrentes en los textos académicos sobre el “sobreturismo”, dada la coherencia de las frases como un punto nodal, mantenida parcialmente en su lugar, por un cuerpo colectivo de textos escritos por una red de académicos, los cuales han invertido tiempo en ellos. El artículo utiliza la inter-discursividad como marco interpretativo a la hora de identificar trayectorias temáticas superpuestas que se encuentran en las disertaciones existentes.

Hallazgos

El sobreturismo, como formación discursiva, determina lo que puede y debe decirse sobre las “verdades” evidentes de la llegada excesiva de turistas, los cambios que los turistas traen a los destinos y la gama de soluciones discursivas disponibles para gestionar o acabar con el “sobreturismo”. Como la interpelación de estos hilos temáticos en textos académicos se basa en un sentido de crisis y urgencia, encontramos que los temas contienen retórica, argumentos y metáforas que problematizan a los turistas y los construyen como objetos que necesitan control y corrección.

Originalidad/valor

Si bien la persistencia de la formación discursiva estará determinada por el grado en que los académicos y otros actores se reconozcan en ella, este artículo puede permitir a los estudiosos del “sobreturismo” tomar conciencia de los límites de su dominio discursivo y ayudarlos a expandir el discurso o tejer un discurso nuevo.

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Jamiu Adetayo Adeniran, Rafiu O. Yusuf, Michael O. Amole, Lukuman Adekilekun Jimoda and Jacob Ademola Sonibare

The introduction of mobile telecommunication services in Nigeria led to the development of base transceiver stations (BTS) across the country. Inadequate power supply from…

Abstract

Purpose

The introduction of mobile telecommunication services in Nigeria led to the development of base transceiver stations (BTS) across the country. Inadequate power supply from the national grid has led to massive use of diesel-fueled back-up generators (BUGs). The purpose of this paper is to attempt to quantify and inform relevant stakeholders about air quality implications of BTS BUGs.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven major telecommunication network operators were identified. Emission factor approach was used to estimate the quantity of important air pollutants such as NOx, CO, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, PAH and TVOC that are emitted from the use of the BUGs based on fuel consumption rate and generators’ capacity. Fuel-based emission inventory and emission factor from the United States Environmental Protection Agency AP-42 and National Pollution Inventory were used to estimate pollutants emission from diesel-powered generators used in the BTS sites and amount of diesel consumed. Land distribution and per capita dose of the estimated pollutants load were calculated.

Findings

The study showed that the deployment of BUGs will lead to increase emissions of these air pollutants. The states that are most affected are Lagos, Kano and Oyo, Katsina and Akwa Ibom states with respective total air pollutants contribution of 9,539.61, 9,445.34, 8,276.46, 7,805.14 and 7,220.70 tonnes/yr.

Originality/value

This study has estimated pollutant emissions from the use of diesel-fueled BUGs in mobile telecommunications BTS sites in Nigeria. The data obtained could assist in policy making.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Mona Yaghoubi and Michael O’Connor Keefe

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of two important financing sources, debt and cash, on a firm’s investment decisions and explores the intertemporal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of two important financing sources, debt and cash, on a firm’s investment decisions and explores the intertemporal impact of this financing on future investment volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first reports our results using ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation and then employ an instrumental variable (IV) strategy which addresses potential endogeneity that arises from future investment volatility on current capital structure and cash levels.

Findings

This paper finds firms with low levels of debt or high levels of cash experience higher future investment volatility, and the probability of large future investment increases with high cash levels. This study’s findings are economically important; for example, a one-standard-deviation increase from the mean of debt ratio implies an approximate 7.8% decrease in future investment volatility; and a one-standard-deviation increase from the mean of a firm’s cash level leads to a 47% increase in the probability of a large investment in the next year.

Originality/value

The findings of this study help firms understand the impact of their present financing decisions on the plausibility of their future investments. This paper contributes to the literature by making both novel and confirmatory findings. This paper was structured to include confirmatory findings for two reasons. First, this paper uses different methods to construct investment volatility and the related investment spike. Second, and more importantly, the hypotheses are interrelated and communicate how firms plan for and execute against uncertain future investments. Growth options are ephemeral, and the hypotheses structure provides a guideline for how a firm finances future growth options.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2010

Olawale O. Ogunsemi, Francis A. Oluwole, Festus Abasiubong, Adebayo R. Erinfolami, Olufemi E. Amoran, Adekunle J. Ariba, Christopher O. Alebiosu and Michael O. Olatawura

Mental disorders lead to difficulties in social, occupational and marital relations. Failure to detect mental disorder denies patients potentially effective treatment…

Abstract

Mental disorders lead to difficulties in social, occupational and marital relations. Failure to detect mental disorder denies patients potentially effective treatment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and nature of mental disorders at the primary care settings and the recognition of these disorders by the attending physicians. Over a period of eight weeks, consecutive and consenting patients who attended three randomly selected primary health care facilities in Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun state were recruited and administered a questionnaire that included a socio-demographic section and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). A total of 412 subjects took part in the study. Subject age ranged from 18-90 years with a mean age of 52.50±21.08 years. One hundred and seventy-six (42.7%) of the subjects were males. A total of 120 (29.1%) of the subjects had depressive disorder, 100 (24.3%) had anxiety disorder, 196 (47.6%) somatoform disorder and 104 (25.2%) met the criteria for an alcohol related problem. The PHC physicians were only able to diagnose disorders relating to mental health in 52 (12.6%) of the subjects. Health and work situations accounted for more than three-quarters of the causes of stress experienced by the subjects. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of mental disorders among patients seen in primary care settings and that a significant proportion of them are not recognized by the primary care physicians. Stress relating to health, work and financial problems is common among primary health care attendees. Physicians in primary health care should be alert to the possibility and the impact of undetected psychiatric morbidity.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robin Stryker

Introduces a special issue on globalization and the welfare state. Asserts that economic globalization constrains national economic and social policy far more now than…

5771

Abstract

Introduces a special issue on globalization and the welfare state. Asserts that economic globalization constrains national economic and social policy far more now than ever before, although the level of international trade has not increased that much compared to levels at the beginning of this century. Talks about the political consequences of economic globalization, particularly welfare state retrenchment in the advanced capitalist world. Outlines the papers included in this issue – comparing welfare system changes in Sweden, the UK and the USA; urban bias in state policy‐making in Mexico; and the developing of the Israeli welfare state. Concludes that economic globalization has a limited effect in shaping social welfare policy in advanced capitalist countries; nevertheless, recommends further research into which aspects of economic globalization shape social welfare policy.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Michael O’ Regan

The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the backpacker label by reconstructing it using the historical antecedent of drifting. Following the deconstruction of…

3297

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the backpacker label by reconstructing it using the historical antecedent of drifting. Following the deconstruction of backpacking’s near past, the author build a clearer conceptual foundation for backpacking’s future.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is framed by scenario planning, which demands a critical review of the backpacking and an appreciation of its history in order to understand its future.

Findings

Backpacking, ever evolving, remains difficult to articulate and challenges researchers to “keep up” with its complexity and heterogeneity. This paper argues that researchers must learn more about how backpacking “works” by opening a dialogue with its past, before engaging in further research. The paper finds that a poor conceptualisation of backpacking has led to a codification of backpacker criteria.

Practical implications

Backpacking remains a research topic which draws disparate researchers using criteria that produces disparate results and deviations. By understanding its past, researchers will be better placed to explore the emancipatory impulses that drive backpackers today and in the future.

Originality/value

This papers’ value lies in the retrospection process which explores backpacking’s near past so as to “make sense” of present research and present scenarios for it is the immediate future. The paper re-anchors backpacking by investigating the major historical, social and cultural events leading up to its emergence.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

MICHAEL P. O'REILLY and MICHAEL J. MAWDESLEY

Disputes frequently occur on engineering and construction projects. In this paper it is argued that these disputes need to be evaluated and managed, with proper attention…

Abstract

Disputes frequently occur on engineering and construction projects. In this paper it is argued that these disputes need to be evaluated and managed, with proper attention being paid to planning of time and money. Since the way in which dispute management is approached will depend on the perceived self‐interest of the parties, it is imperative that disputants have a sensible measure of their self‐interest. ‘Traditional’ probabilistic risk assessment techniques are shown to be of assistance and can be used to compute appropriate dispute management strategies. By way of example, a Monte Carlo simulation of a dispute is performed and discussed.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Fei Jin Ying, Michael O’Sullivan and Ivo Adan

Materials supply is one of the important elements in construction operation and a major factor affecting the quality of construction projects. Many industries look to…

Abstract

Purpose

Materials supply is one of the important elements in construction operation and a major factor affecting the quality of construction projects. Many industries look to manage materials effectively by attempting to integrate logistics processes into logistics chains of suppliers and customers. Logistics processes, being crucial for successful completion of construction projects, but in fact, auxiliary, are often entrusted to external professionals specialised in logistic services, such as logistics centres. However, this tendency is yet to be developed in construction. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simulation framework for the examination of potential improvements of logistics performance using logistics centres.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was adopted with computer simulation using Flexsim. Data of vehicle movements were collected during construction on-site from the start of construction to “hand-over” to the building owner.

Findings

The ideal location of a logistics centre is identified using vehicle movements data collected on the site. The potential improvements of the planned centre are then evaluated by simulating various scenarios of vehicle movements. The enclosed results from the simulations indicate that using a logistics centre will reduce waste for the construction project considered.

Originality/value

The paper emphasises that creating a logistics centre for a project can improve construction logistics performance, by consolidating and optimizing both off-site and on-site logistics, especially when the site condition is prohibitive (small footprint with limited loading bay area). Establishing logistics centres may help find ways of making the overall construction project more effective by improving the management of materials.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Michael O'Brien

This paper briefly describes the background to the establishment of the Committee of Inquiry into the future development of the Public Health Function. It summarises some…

Abstract

This paper briefly describes the background to the establishment of the Committee of Inquiry into the future development of the Public Health Function. It summarises some of the constraints, both explicit and implicit, which guided the committee's approach to its task. It points up the inextricable links between health authority responsibility, general management and public health medicine. Strengthening of the links between general management and public health medicine will enhance both for the benefit of public health.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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