This policy brief discusses validity and fairness issues that could arise when test-based information is used for making “high stakes” decisions at an individual level…
This policy brief discusses validity and fairness issues that could arise when test-based information is used for making “high stakes” decisions at an individual level, such as, for the certification of teachers or other professionals, or when admitting students into higher education programs and colleges, or for making immigration-related decisions for prospective immigrants. To assist test developers, affiliated researchers and test users enhance levels of validity and fairness with these particular types of test score interpretations and uses, this policy brief summarizes an “argument-based approach” to validation given by Kane.
This policy brief is based on a synthesis of conference proceedings and review of selected pieces of extant literature. To that synthesis, the authors add practitioner-friendly examples with their own analysis of key issues. They conclude by offering recommendations for test developers and test users.
The authors conclude that validity is a complex and evolving construct, especially when considering issues of fairness in individual testing contexts. Kane's argument-based approach offers an accessible framework through which test makers can accumulate evidence to evaluate inferences and arguments related to decisions to be made with test scores. Perspectives of test makers, researchers, test takers and decision-makers must all be incorporated into constructing coherent “validity arguments” to guide the test development and validation processes.
Standardized test use for individual-level decisions is gradually spreading to various regions of the world, but understandings of validity are still uneven among key stakeholders of such testing programs. By translating complex information on test validation, validity and fairness issues with all concerned stakeholders in mind, this policy brief attempts to address the communication gaps noted to exist among these groups by Kane.
Short-term military simulations of scenarios or conditions that U.S. military personnel might meet are generally the largest, in terms of cost and personnel, of all…
Short-term military simulations of scenarios or conditions that U.S. military personnel might meet are generally the largest, in terms of cost and personnel, of all operational training events. That at least six such exercises were scheduled for September 11, 2001 raises serious questions about whether or not the events of 9/11 were at least partially orchestrated by U.S. command.
In light of the aforementioned military exercises and the fact that the 9/11 Commission's Final Report barely mentions them, neither were they significantly discussed nor investigated during the hearings, this essay briefly explores four key questions that will hopefully stimulate further inquiries, investigations and perhaps subpoenas that will ultimately break the silence and force declassification of the information surrounding the war games.1.Has there been a high-level suppression of information about the military drills?2.Might the military drills have been a significant factor in the success of the attacks?3.Who was in charge of the military drills and what motives may have been operating for this person?4.In what way might Zacarias Moussaoui, the only person charged in the United States for the attacks, be a link that connects to the person in charge of the games to another tragedy that may have been “an inside job” – i.e. Senator Paul Wellstone's death, and how might Moussaoui connect all of this to the Pentagon?
This chapter proposes an optimized innovative information technology as a means for achieving operational functionalities of real-time portable electronic health records…
This chapter proposes an optimized innovative information technology as a means for achieving operational functionalities of real-time portable electronic health records, system interoperability, longitudinal health-risks research cohort and surveillance of adverse events infrastructure, and clinical, genome regions – disease and interventional prevention infrastructure. In application to the Dod-VA (Department of Defense and Veteran's Administration) health information systems, the proposed modernization can be carried out as an “add-on” expansion (estimated at $288 million in constant dollars) or as a “stand-alone” innovative information technology system (estimated at $489.7 million), and either solution will prototype an infrastructure for nation-wide health information systems interoperability, portable real-time electronic health records (EHRs), adverse events surveillance, and interventional prevention based on targeted single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovery.
In recent years there has been much discussion about the relevance of the discipline of anthropology to the various emergent discourses on the environment. Among those researching in the area, reason for concern has been confirmed by a failure to make themselves heard as experts over the growing din of the other branches of social research passionately pleading the case for the relevance of their respective disciplines. This is evidenced to some degree by the lack of anthropological literature in the field of environmentalism and comes into stark relief when compared with the extensive treatment of the area given by the political sciences. This chapter seeks to focus on reactions by anthropologists to this dearth of environmentally concerned research within the discipline over the past decade. The debate over the issues raised by this discussion has evolved principally between a small number of dedicated anthropologists, and although it is now spilling out into the wider anthropological community, it is from these scholars work that a path forward has been constructed.
This edition of the Advances in Ecopolitics Series with Emerald Publishing examines the range of environmental campaigns that are in occurring across the planet. As world leaders attempt to tackle climate change, this edition presents a collection of case studies on global grassroots initiatives and activism in diverse areas such as green economic alternatives in Anne Pettifor's study on ‘The Green New Deal: Restoring Balance and Stability to the Global Financial and Ecosystem’ or John Barry's chapter ‘Towards a Model of Green Political Economy: From Economic Growth and Ecological Modernisation to Economic Security’ or regional activism in defense of communities as presented in Victor Ojakorotu's study on ‘the Dilemma of Justice: Foreign Oil Multinationals and Human Rights Violation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria’.
The Program Committee of the National Council on Measurement in Education requested that the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements present a special session at the NCME…
The Program Committee of the National Council on Measurement in Education requested that the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements present a special session at the NCME meeting on April 12–14, 1983, on the Institute's current activities and future plans. NCME interest was no doubt heightened by the fact that Oscar K. Buros, who had served so effectively as editor and publisher of the Mental Measurements Yearbooks for over 40 years, had passed away in March of 1978. After his death there was a great deal of conjecture about whether this important work would continue. Through the sustained efforts of his widow, Luella Buros, the Institute was eventually relocated at the University of Nebraska‐Lincoln. Now NCME was interested in how the work was progressing and what kinds of plans the new Institute was developing for the future. The material presented here is in answer to this request.