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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Chanho Song, Tuo Wang, Haakon T. Brown and Michael Y. Hu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how referral reward programs (RRPs) utilizing scarcity messages influence bank credit holders’ referrals to and adoptions by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how referral reward programs (RRPs) utilizing scarcity messages influence bank credit holders’ referrals to and adoptions by close or distant friends.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2×2 experiment is implemented with 760 consumers solicited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk worker panel. Logit transformation and general linear models are used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

Results showed that offering RRPs with limited available referrals (quantity scarcity) increases the overall number of referrals to and adoptions by close and distant friends. The percent of strong ties also increases with RRPs. As quantity scarcity is relaxed, the percentages of referrals to and adoptions by close friends decrease.

Originality/value

The inclusion of tie strength with scarcity framing greatly enhances our understanding of the effectiveness of RRPs for bank credit cards. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research attempt on this topic.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Andy Wei Hao, Xin Liu, Michael Hu and Xiaoling Guo

The paper examines the cultural differences in consumers' evaluations of vertical brand extensions.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the cultural differences in consumers' evaluations of vertical brand extensions.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (extension types: upward, downward) × 2 (nationality: USA, China) × 2 (ownership: owner, non-owner) between-subjects design with thinking styles as a covariate was employed to test consumers' evaluations of vertical brand extensions. A total of 228 subjects from the US and 194 from China participated in the two experimental studies.

Findings

The paper finds that consumers prefer downward extensions to upward extensions. Furthermore, Chinese consumers have even more favorable evaluations of downward extension products than do American consumers. In addition, analytic thinkers exhibit a stronger ownership effect than holistic thinkers.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the understanding of culture differences in vertical brand extension evaluations.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Chanho Song, Tuo Wang and Michael Y. Hu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how referral reward programs (RRPs) with scarcity messages influence consumer’ recommendation behavioral intentions about a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how referral reward programs (RRPs) with scarcity messages influence consumer’ recommendation behavioral intentions about a bank credit card.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,599 consumers are accessed through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk worker panel. The authors use general linear models, analysis of variance and analysis of covariance to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that offering RRPs with scarcity messages increases a consumer’s behavioral intentions to recommend. The limited-quantity message in RRPs has the highest positive impact on consumers’ behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

No prior studies have addressed the relationship between referral rewards and scarcity messages in the bank credit card context. The study contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of RRPs with scarcity message in improving consumer’s referral.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Chanho Song, Tuo Wang, Hyunjung Lee and Michael Y. Hu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of referral rewards in referral reward programs (RRPs) are moderated through perceived social risk of a recommender.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the effects of referral rewards in referral reward programs (RRPs) are moderated through perceived social risk of a recommender.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 717 consumers are accessed through Amazon's Mechanical Turk worker panel. The authors use t-test and analysis of variance to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The findings show that consumers with high perceived social risk balance financial rewards with social risks, while low social risk consumers largely ignore these social risk elements surrounding a referral decision.

Originality/value

The inclusion of perceived social risk provides the opportunity to fully understand how a consumer goes about balancing social risk and referral rewards in making referral decisions. The concept of social risk has not been previously applied to this context.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

David A. Griffith, Michael Y. Hu and Haiyang Chen

This study examines the factors influencing the number of partners forming an international joint venture (IJV) and the resultant outcome on performance. Various…

1706

Abstract

This study examines the factors influencing the number of partners forming an international joint venture (IJV) and the resultant outcome on performance. Various theoretical paradigms (such as strategic behavior, organizational learning, eclectic theory, socio‐cultural distance, and role theory) are drawn upon from the literature to develop a set of testable hypotheses which may assist in understanding the factors influencing the number of partners forming an IJV. Size (overall equity investment), control, socio‐cultural distance, industrial characteristics (technology and capital intensity) and location are used to differentiate the number of partners in an IJV. Additionally, an outcome orientation was taken to determine the impact of the number of partners on performance. Empirical findings, based upon Sino‐foreign IJVs, indicate that the number of partners involved with the cooperative agreement were positively associated with the size of the IJV, and differed across control and location of the IJV. Further, performance tended to increase as more partners were included within the IJV.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Michael Schuricht, Zachary Davis, Michael Hu, Shreyas Prasad, Peter M. Melliar‐Smith and Louise E. Moser

Mobile handheld devices, such as cellular phones and personal digital assistants, are inherently small and lack an intuitive and natural user interface. Speech recognition…

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile handheld devices, such as cellular phones and personal digital assistants, are inherently small and lack an intuitive and natural user interface. Speech recognition and synthesis technology can be used in mobile handheld devices to improve the user experience. The purpose of this paper is to describe a prototype system that supports multiple speech‐enabled applications in a mobile handheld device.

Design/methodology/approach

The main component of the system, the Program Manager, coordinates and controls the speech‐enabled applications. Human speech requests to, and responses from, these applications are processed in the mobile handheld device, to achieve the goal of human‐like interactions between the human and the device. In addition to speech, the system also supports graphics and text, i.e., multimodal input and output, for greater usability, flexibility, adaptivity, accuracy, and robustness. The paper presents a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the prototype system. The Program Manager is currently designed to handle the specific speech‐enabled applications that we developed.

Findings

The paper determines that many human interactions involve not single applications but multiple applications working together in possibly unanticipated ways.

Research limitations/implications

Future work includes generalization of the Program Manager so that it supports arbitrary applications and the addition of new applications dynamically. Future work also includes deployment of the Program Manager and the applications on cellular phones running the Android Platform or the Openmoko Framework.

Originality/value

This paper presents a first step towards a future human interface for mobile handheld devices and for speech‐enabled applications operating on those devices.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2008

Gary Garrison, Michael Harvey and Nancy Napier

This paper examines the role of managerial curiosity as a critical factor in determining the future impact of disruptive information technologies in a global organization…

Abstract

This paper examines the role of managerial curiosity as a critical factor in determining the future impact of disruptive information technologies in a global organization. Specifically, this paper presents curiosity as a managerial characteristic that plays an important role in identifying disruptive information technologies and facilitating their early adoption. Further, it uses resource‐based theory as a theoretical lens to illustrate how managerial curiosity can be a source of sustained competitive advantage. Finally, it examines the individual decision styles that are best suited in assessing disruptive information technologies.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

David E. Booth, Moutaz Khouja and Michael Hu

Industrial robots are increasingly used by many manufacturingfirms. The number of robot manufacturers has also increased, with manyof these firms now offering a wide range…

Abstract

Industrial robots are increasingly used by many manufacturing firms. The number of robot manufacturers has also increased, with many of these firms now offering a wide range of robots. A potential user is thus faced with many options in both performance and cost. Proposes a decision model for the robot selection problem using both a robustified Mahalanobis distance analysis, i.e. a multivariate distance measure, and principal‐components analysis. Unlike most other models for robot selection, this model takes into consideration the fact that a robot′s performance, as specified by the manufacturer, is often unobtainable in reality. The robots selected by the proposed model become candidates for factory testing to verify manufacturers′ specifications. Tests the proposed model on a real data set and presents an example.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Fanglin Shen, Quantong Guo, Hongyan Liang and Zilong Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between investors' divergence of opinions and the asset prices of foreign stocks and also examine the effect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between investors' divergence of opinions and the asset prices of foreign stocks and also examine the effect of home market country-level factors on the influence of divergency of opinions on stock price.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ panel data estimation with fixed effects to examine the host market response in divergent opinions to the earnings announcements. The paper uses the American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) of 42 countries from 1985 to 2011.

Findings

The authors find a negative relationship between differences of opinions and excess quarterly earnings announcement returns, and investors do process information asymmetrically based on good and bad earnings shocks. In addition, the authors find the negative relationship between divergent opinions and excess earnings announcement returns in ADRs is more pronounced in countries with short-sales restrictions, while other home-market country-level factors – the enforcement of insider trading law, legal origin, investor protection and rating on accounting standard – do not influence the relationship between investors' divergency of opinion and stock returns.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to bring asymmetric effects on convergence in Miller framework and enhance the understanding of price convergence documented in Miller (1977). In addition, this study incorporates home-market country-level factors in explaining the relationship between investors' divergency of opinions and stock returns.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Guanyu Hu and Michael Engelhardt

This paper summarizes the results of computational and experimental investigations on the behavior of steel simple beam end framing connections subjected to fire…

Abstract

This paper summarizes the results of computational and experimental investigations on the behavior of steel simple beam end framing connections subjected to fire. Connections are critical elements in maintaining the integrity of a structure during a fire. Fire can cause large force and deformation demands on connections during both the heating and cooling stages, while reducing connection strength and stiffness.

In the US, one of the most common types of simple beam end framing connections is the single plate connection. In order to better understand the behavior of this type of connection in fire, a series of computational and experimental investigations have been completed by the authors. The computational studies investigated the typical behavior of the connection during heating and cooling phase of fires as well as the connection force and deformation demands. Experimental studies on connections at elevated temperatures were conducted to validate predictions of connection capacity developed by computational and design models as well as providing knowledge of failure modes. This paper will present key results from this study.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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