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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Michael Grossman

I discuss economic approaches to the demand for harmfully addictive substances with an emphasis on the role of money prices. First, I examine trends in the real prices and…

Abstract

I discuss economic approaches to the demand for harmfully addictive substances with an emphasis on the role of money prices. First, I examine trends in the real prices and in the prevalence of the use of cigarettes, alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana in the U.S.A. Then I present estimates of time-series demand functions. Next, I discuss how economists have modified their traditional model of consumer behaviour to incorporate the addictive aspects of illegal substances. I conclude with implications for tax policy and for the lively and contentious debate concerning the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin.

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Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Daniel Dench and Michael Grossman

In this chapter, we investigate two-way causality between health and the hourly wage. We employ insights from the human capital and compensating wage differential models…

Abstract

In this chapter, we investigate two-way causality between health and the hourly wage. We employ insights from the human capital and compensating wage differential models, a panel formed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, and dynamic panel estimation methods in this investigation. We adopt plausible specifications in which a change in health induces a change in the wage with a lag and a change in the wage induces a change in health, also with a lag. We uncover a causal relationship between two of the five measures of health and the wage in which a reduction in health leads to an increase in the wage rate in a panel of US young adults who had completed their formal schooling by 2006 and were continuously employed from that year through 2011. There is no evidence of a causal relationship running from the wage rate to health in this panel. The former result highlights the multidimensional nature of health. It is consistent with an extension of the compensating wage differential model in which a large amount of effort in one period is required to obtain promotions and the wage increases that accompany them in subsequent periods. That effort may cause reductions in health and to a negative effect of health in the previous period on the current period wage. In this framework, employees have imperfect information about the effort requirements of a particular job when they are hired, and employers have imperfect information about the amount of effort new hirers are willing to exert. The result is also consistent with a model in which investments in career advancement compete with investments in health for time – the ultimate scarce resource. The lack of a causal effect of the wage on health may suggest that forces that go in opposite directions in the human capital and compensating wage differential models offset each other.

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Health and Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-861-2

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Titus J. Galama and Hans van Kippersluis

We explore what health-capital theory has to offer in terms of informing and directing research into health inequality. We argue that economic theory can help in…

Abstract

We explore what health-capital theory has to offer in terms of informing and directing research into health inequality. We argue that economic theory can help in identifying mechanisms through which specific socioeconomic indicators and health interact. Our reading of the literature, and our own work, leads us to conclude that non-degenerate versions of the Grossman (1972a, 1972b) model and its extensions can explain many salient stylized facts on health inequalities. Yet, further development is required in at least two directions. First, a childhood phase needs to be incorporated, in recognition of the importance of childhood endowments and investments in the determination of later-life socioeconomic and health outcomes. Second, a unified theory of joint investment in skill (or human) capital and in health capital could provide a basis for a theory of the relationship between education and health.

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Health and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-553-1

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

This volume is part of an annual series entitled Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research. We express our gratitude to the series editors Björn Lindgren…

Abstract

This volume is part of an annual series entitled Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research. We express our gratitude to the series editors Björn Lindgren and Michael Grossman for inviting us to edit this volume.

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The Economics of Obesity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-482-9

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Jared C. Carbone and Snorre Kverndokk

Empirical studies show that years of schooling are positively correlated with good health. The implication may go from education to health, from health to education, or…

Abstract

Empirical studies show that years of schooling are positively correlated with good health. The implication may go from education to health, from health to education, or from factors that influence both variables. We formalize a model that determines an individual’s demand for knowledge and health based on the causal effects, and study the impacts on the individual’s decisions of policy instruments such as subsidies on medical care, subsidizing schooling, income tax reduction, lump-sum transfers, and improving health at young age. Our results indicate that income redistribution policies may be the best instrument to improve welfare, while a medical care subsidy is the best instrument for longevity. Subsidies to medical care or education would require large imperfections in these markets to be more welfare improving than distributional policies.

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Michael Grossman, Robert Kaestner and Sara Markowitz

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the role of alcohol policies in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among youth. Previous research has…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the role of alcohol policies in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among youth. Previous research has shown that risky sexual practices (e.g., unprotected sex and multiple partners) that increase the risk of contracting an STD are highly correlated with alcohol use. If alcohol is a cause of risky sexual behaviour, then policies that reduce the consumption of alcohol may also reduce the incidence of STDs. In this chapter, we examine the relationship between alcohol policies (e.g., beer taxes and statutes pertaining to alcohol sales and drunk driving) and rates of gonorrhea and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among teenagers and young adults. Results indicate that higher beer taxes are associated with lower rates of gonorrhea for males and are suggestive of lower AIDS rates. Strict drunk driving policies in the form of zero tolerance laws may also lower the gonorrhea rate among males under the legal drinking age.

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Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Björn Lindgren and Michael Grossman

Six papers on individual behaviour are included in this volume. The first three are devoted to the determinants of individual consumption behaviour, the next two analyse…

Abstract

Six papers on individual behaviour are included in this volume. The first three are devoted to the determinants of individual consumption behaviour, the next two analyse the impact of individual substance use on labour market performance and criminal activities, respectively, while the last one challenges recent research, which claims that the increase in the prescription of antidepressants is the major factor behind the observed reduction in suicide rates during the 1990s.

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Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Björn Lindgren and Michael Grossman

This book marks the resumption of an annual series of research in health economics previously published by JAI Press Inc. and entitled Advances in Health Economics and

Abstract

This book marks the resumption of an annual series of research in health economics previously published by JAI Press Inc. and entitled Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research. Fifteen volumes in that series appeared in the years from 1979 through 1995. The continuation of the series bears the title Advances in Health Economics and Health Policy and is being published by JAI, an imprint of Elsevier Ltd.

Details

Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Abstract

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2005

Abstract

Details

Substance Use: Individual Behaviour, Social Interactions, Markets and Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-361-7

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