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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2008

Michael Geis and Martin Middendorf

The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm that is based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic for producing harmonized melodies. ACO is a nature…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm that is based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic for producing harmonized melodies. ACO is a nature inspired metaheuristic where a colony of ants searches for an optimum of a function. The algorithm works in two stages. In the first stage it creates a melody. The obtained melody is then harmonized according to the rules of baroque harmony in the second stage. A multi‐objective version of the algorithm is also proposed, where each tier is optimized as a separate objective.

Design/methodology/approach

The ACO metaheuristic is adapted to graphs representing notes and chords. Desirability of a sequence of notes is measured by conformance to compositional rules. The fitness of a melody is evaluated with five equally weighted rules governing smoothness of the melody curve, its contour, tendency tone resolution, tone colors and the pitch of the final note. Harmonization is guided by six rules, grouped into three tiers of two rules each. These rules cover chord arrangement, voice distance, voice leading, harmonic progression, smoothness, and chord resolution. Rules of a tier do not score unless those of the previous tier yield high values.

Findings

The proposed algorithm improves on the only other existing musical ACO by adding the notion of harmony and by evolving voices codependently. The output is comparable to different types of other existing algorithms (genetic algorithm, rule‐based search algorithm) in the field. The multi‐objective variant significantly enhances solution quality and convergence speed, which makes extensions of the system for real time performance realistic.

Originality/value

This algorithm is the first ACO algorithm proposed for the problem of melody creation and harmonization.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Michael Geis and Martin Middendorf

The purpose of this paper is to present a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm called HelixPSO for finding ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structures that have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm called HelixPSO for finding ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structures that have a low energy and are similar to the native structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Two variants of HelixPSO are described and compared to the recent algorithms Rna‐Predict, SARNA‐Predict, SetPSO and RNAfold. Furthermore, a parallel version of the HelixPSO is proposed.

Findings

For a set of standard RNA test sequences it is shown experimentally that HelixPSO obtains a better average sensitivity than SARNA‐Predict and SetPSO and is as good as RNA‐Predict and RNAfold. When best values for different measures (e.g. number of correctly predicted base pairs, false positives and sensitivity) over several runs are compared, HelixPSO performs better than RNAfold, similar to RNA‐Predict, and is outperformed by SARNA‐Predict. It is shown that HelixPSO complements RNA‐Predict and SARNA‐Predict well since the algorithms show often very different behavior on the same sequence. For the parallel version of HelixPSO it is shown that good speedup values can be obtained for small to medium size PC clusters.

Originality/value

The new PSO algorithm HelixPSO for finding RNA secondary structures uses different algorithmic ideas than the other existing PSO algorithm SetPSO. HelixPSO uses thermodynamic information as well as the centroid as a reference structure and is based on a multiple swarm approach.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Mia Parvez, James Hazelton and James Guthrie

Cities are crucial to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper aims to explore the quality of GHG disclosures by cities via the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP…

Abstract

Purpose

Cities are crucial to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper aims to explore the quality of GHG disclosures by cities via the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) and compares them with the expectations of users.

Design/methodology/approach

The expectation gap framework is used to examine the GHG disclosure quality of 42 cities. User expectations are determined via a literature review and CDP documentation. City disclosures are reviewed using content analysis.

Findings

GHG information at the city level is outdated, incomplete, inconsistent, inaccurate and incomparable and, therefore, to meet user expectations, improvement is needed.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have implications for policymakers, stakeholders and managers. Guidelines are required for better disclosure of GHG information relating to cities, and stakeholders need to develop better skills to understand emissions information. Managers have a responsibility to measure, disclose and mitigate GHG emissions to meet the expectations of stakeholders.

Originality/value

Prior studies focus on GHG disclosures via the CDP by corporations. This is the first accounting study to examine GHG disclosures by cities via the CDP. The expectation gap framework is a novel approach to sustainability disclosure research.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Michael King

The purpose of this study is to identify factors that have led to the rebirthing of the illicit cultivation of tobacco in Australia known as chop-chop. Limited research…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify factors that have led to the rebirthing of the illicit cultivation of tobacco in Australia known as chop-chop. Limited research has been conducted on the Commonwealth policing of tobacco-related criminal activity, but no prior studies have investigated domestic cultivation since the tobacco farming ceased legal production.

Design/methodology/approach

To fill the void of the literature, this study used data collected from Australian Government publications, court cases and newspapers to develop an understanding of the financial aspects and policing of the rebirth of chop-chop. Newspaper articles for a range of publications for a two-year period were used to examine policing efforts to disrupt criminals engaged in domestic cultivation of tobacco.

Findings

As tobacco was first legally grown in Australia, authorities have always faced the problems associated with the illicit cultivation of tobacco. Findings indicate that as a result of the increased number of successful interception of illicit tobacco at the border, the domestic cultivation of chop-chop is growing as criminal enterprises find alternative means to fund their activities.

Originality/value

The paper improves upon a neglected topic by offering a current contribution to a topic looking at the illicit tobacco, chop-chop trade.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Aneta Spaic, Claire Angelique Nolasco, Lily Chi-Fang Tsai and Michael S. Vaughn

This paper analyzes trading and tipping activities in insider trading litigation decided by federal courts from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes trading and tipping activities in insider trading litigation decided by federal courts from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Legal documents from the US Securities and Exchange Commission, LexisNexis and Westlaw databases were coded to determine profile, patterns of trading and settlement outcomes.

Findings

Results of statistical analysis indicate that a defendant in both civil and criminal cases is more likely to trade on the information when he/she receives a direct, financial benefit from breaching his/her duty of confidentiality. The defendant tipper is also more likely to pass on the information to a close personal friend, business associate or family member. The average amount of profit of defendants in both civil and criminal proceedings substantially exceeds the average amount of their settlements.

Originality/value

This paper offers support for the rational choice model – insider trading is often based on rational calculations of benefits not only to the defendant but also to his/her family and associates. Although the threat of civil enforcement and criminal proceedings may possibly deter him/her from committing the crime, results indicate that the amounts of settlement in both proceedings are considerably lower than the amount of profits obtained from the offense.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Christabel L. Rogalin

This chapter seeks to theoretically answer the question: under which circumstances do groups succeed under female leadership? Further, is it possible to conceptualize the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter seeks to theoretically answer the question: under which circumstances do groups succeed under female leadership? Further, is it possible to conceptualize the engineering of groups such that group success under female leadership is a likely outcome?

Design/methodology/approach

In this chapter, I draw on identity control theory (Burke & Stets, 2009; Stets & Burke, 2005) and role congruity theory (Eagly, 2003) to discuss the implications for female leaders of the discrepancy between the female gender identity and the leader identity. Next, I draw upon status characteristics theory (Berger et al., 1972) to further illustrate the negative consequences of being a female leader. Then, drawing on group processes research, I make the explicit link between the negative expectations for female leaders on group performance through the endorsement of group members. Finally, I utilize innovative research using institutionalization of female leadership to propose a possible solution for improving group performance.

Research implications

I present nine testable hypotheses ready for empirical test.

Social implications

I propose that training materials underscoring the skills that females have as leaders can subvert the development of conflictual expectations facing female leaders, thus removing the deleterious effects on group performance. That is, if group members receive training that emphasizes the competencies and skills women bring to the group’s task and to the leadership role, then group performance will not be threatened.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-976-8

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2017

Cristian Incaltarau and Loredana Maria Simionov

The theoretical contribution provided by the transitional theories has fundamentally helped develop a better understanding of the migration process, by showing how…

Abstract

The theoretical contribution provided by the transitional theories has fundamentally helped develop a better understanding of the migration process, by showing how migration is interacting with other processes of development. They show that along with development, emigration is following an upside down ‘U’ shaped pattern, being overreached by immigration, while the region changes its migration profile from emigration to immigration. This was the case for the southern European states, which followed a rapid migration transition during the second half of the twentieth century. After large emigration to Western and Northern Europe, these managed to attract large immigration flows from the less developed countries in Africa and Latin America, but also from Eastern Europe after the fall of communist regimes. This chapter aims to test whether Eastern Europe is heading to the same migration transition pattern as the South and change their current status of net migration provider. Thus, the impact of the migration transition drivers in explaining net migration balance is analysed using a panel data for the 2000–2013 period. As a country can encompass both emigration and immigration regions, the current analysis is carried out at European Union (EU) regional level data (NUTS II), while controlling for the regional specifics and unobserved time effects. Overall, most of the factors which led to the migration shift, from emigration to immigration, in Southern Europe were proven to be fundamental at EU regional level as well. Migration flows were shown to be more sensitive to unemployment, urbanisation, segmentation of the labour market and active population share in the eastern as compared to the southern European regions. Nevertheless, accessing the transition drivers evolution during 2011–2013 period, eastern regions are still highly unattractive and their chances for becoming destination regions are currently at low levels.

Details

Core-Periphery Patterns Across the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-495-8

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Laura L. Hansen

The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to assist in finding solutions for the growing moral and social issues of financial crime plaguing corporations today.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to assist in finding solutions for the growing moral and social issues of financial crime plaguing corporations today.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodology includes the synthesis of existing theories in economic sociology and criminology to “diagnose” and “treat” the existing flaws in corporate structures that have led to malaise and malfeasance. Theories include differential association, self‐control, and control balance, taking into consideration the characteristics of individuals and corporate structures.

Findings

Findings suggest that corporate structure has to be critically scrutinized and changes implemented, including close examination of informal and formal communication and salary structures.

Practical implications

This paper suggests concrete strategies and policy changes for regulators, corporate decision makers, and academics.

Originality/value

The synthesis of existing theories in white collar malfeasance and crime provides a template to increase corporate social responsibility and promote policy/regulatory changes in the current economic climate.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Shaomin Li, Seung Ho Park and Rosey Shuji Bao

The purpose of this paper is to use the framework of rule-based and relation-based governance to examine the evolution of governance environment in the East Asian region…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the framework of rule-based and relation-based governance to examine the evolution of governance environment in the East Asian region including China, South Korea and Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

Both qualitative and quantitative evidences are presented to demonstrate the paths these East Asian countries take in their transitions from relation-based governance to rule-based governance. Based on the framework, this analysis sheds light on the debate on whether East Asian economies will eventually move away from relation-based governance to rule-based societies.

Findings

The authors find that relation-based governance has helped East Asian countries achieve rapid economic growth in the early stages of their development. However, as the scale and scope of East Asian economies expand, continuing to rely on it may hinder their further development and therefore these countries should adopt a rule-based governance system in order to be efficient and competitive in the world market. While South Korea and Taiwan have made substantial progress in this transition, China has just embarked on the process.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to systematically review the theories and evidence of the transition and the challenges East Asian countries face during the process.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Seth M. Spain, P. D. Harms and Dustin Wood

The role of dark side personality characteristics in the workplace has received increasing attention in the organizational sciences and from leadership researchers in…

Abstract

The role of dark side personality characteristics in the workplace has received increasing attention in the organizational sciences and from leadership researchers in particular. We provide a review of this area, mapping out the key frameworks for assessing the dark side. We pay particular attention to the roles that the dark side plays in leadership processes and career dynamics, with special attention given to destructive leadership. Further, we examine the role that stress plays in the emergence of leaders and how the dark side plays into that process. We additionally provide discussion of the possible roles that leaders can play in producing stress experiences for their followers. We finally illustrate a dynamic model of the interplay of dark leadership, social relationships, and stress in managerial derailment. Throughout, we emphasize a functionalist account of these personality characteristics, placing particular focus on the motives and emotional capabilities of the individuals under discussion.

Details

The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-061-9

Keywords

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