This manuscript develops a reverse logistics monitoring system for controlling reverse flows of materials through marketing channels in emerging economies. Institutional…
This manuscript develops a reverse logistics monitoring system for controlling reverse flows of materials through marketing channels in emerging economies. Institutional theory is incorporated to show that both positive and negative impacts on environmental sustainability can be predicted. A partner control framework and scales are then developed for use by managers and researchers in furthering their understanding of the effective management of global reverse logistic networks
The purpose of this paper is to provide a theory‐based explanation for the emerging managerial role set within supply chain networks. As managing within supply networks…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a theory‐based explanation for the emerging managerial role set within supply chain networks. As managing within supply networks requires a portfolio of capabilities, the emerging managerial role set is explained utilizing a combined knowledge‐based view and relational contracting theoretical perspective. The multiple foci of the manager’s role set within supply networks is associated with unique challenges that are also examined. Based on the analysis of these new challenges for supply chain managers, the managerial and research implications are outlined. In conclusion, specific managerial actions, which are necessary in supply chain networks to engender the development of trust and social capital in supply networks, are explained.
The ultimate purpose of this paper it to encourage international business scholars and managers to pay more attention to global social time when performing research and…
The ultimate purpose of this paper it to encourage international business scholars and managers to pay more attention to global social time when performing research and developing business strategy.
Strategic reference point (SRP) theory is used as a foundation to assist in visualizing the meaning of social time in a global context. From this grounding point, the authors make specific suggestions about the importance of the topic despite it being largely overlooked in international research dating back to Hofstede.
Time utility takes on a significantly different meaning when both a marketing manager's context and market are global. The conceptualization of time by different cultures can yield significantly different meanings based upon a culture's SRP(s) as to how social time is measured. Cultural differences necessitate having this flexible orientation towards social time to effectively develop and implement global marketing strategies. This research addresses the importance of breaking‐down the concept of social time into its fundamental dimensions and developing strategic implementation steps using the dimensions of time as competitive tools in the global marketing arena.
A six‐step process is developed to assist marketing researchers and managers in developing social time sensitive marketing strategies. Researchers and managers must be aware of the differences in social time perspectives and should analyze the situation to ascertain differences in the dimensions of each cross cultural group. An effort must be made to combine these varying social time perspectives into a consolidated social time foundation for the marketing team in the host country. Differences in social time must be taken into consideration when developing/executing strategies in other countries that have different social time perspectives.
Breaking new ground in international business, this paper sets the ground work for the future study of up to 12 different streams of research important to the understanding of (global) time in international business. Managerial tools are included in the discussion to assist in international marketing practice.
Antitrust legislation in the United States was originally enacted in 1890. This legislation and subsequent amendments established the historic precedent of government…
Antitrust legislation in the United States was originally enacted in 1890. This legislation and subsequent amendments established the historic precedent of government controlling the power of business by limiting its influence over markets. This paper reflects on why this unique set of laws was originally enacted, reviews these laws in the United States compared to other global competitors, and recommends revisions in the present legislation to more accurately reflect the competitive arena that United States based companies face in the global economy.
Background to International Counterfeiting It has been estimated that counterfeiting, the unauthorized imitation of goods or services with intent to deceive (6), was…
Background to International Counterfeiting It has been estimated that counterfeiting, the unauthorized imitation of goods or services with intent to deceive (6), was responsible for approximately $60 billion in lost sales of consumer and industrial products in the United States in 1985. In comparison, $3 billion in sales were lost in United States market in 1978 due to piracy of reputable merchandise. Currently, counterfeiting has been estimated as increasing at an incredible rate of thirty percent a year. One of the fastest growing product counterfeit segments is in industrial products. Close to five percent of the total world trade consumer industrial products is accounted for by the importation of fraudulent goods and services. The counterfeit market in the United States exists and continues to thrive due to the immense demand for copies of well‐known, reputable brands, but at a fraction of the cost of the real item. By forging goods, counterfeiters reduce their costs by denying the royalties that rightfully belong to the originator of the forged item. In another aspect, if existing technology is copied from another firm, the counterfeiting organization has virtually no research and development costs while the firm that produced the technology costs are significantly higher than those of the counterfeiter.
The term “strategic thinking” is a relatively recent addition to the lexicon of marketing concepts. Its popularity arises from increasing discontent with highly formalized marketing planning approaches that replace creativity with paperwork and Jock executives into a dangerously predictable repertoire of strategic options. Despite the frequent call for strategic thinking to augment the marketing planning process, there is woefully little written on the subject. It would seem that the admonition to THINK emphasized by the late Thomas Watson at IBM is not enough. Rather, strategic thinking requires a perspective on what to think about. The properties of games, which we will describe, provide a valuable insight into what an executive should consider when asked to think strategically regarding a marketing problem or opportunity. These properties form the basis for the game theory approaches in decision analysis where mathematics is the dominant feature. Unfortunately, the impenetrable language of mathematics has obscured the fundamental properties of games so that marketing executives cannot readily use them in a corporate setting. We will look here at these fundamental game properties and see what insights they offer for strategic marketing thinking and formulating competitive strategy.
Multinational companies often wrestle with the question of how to transfer technologies to less developed countries. Any appraisal system should include an examination of…
Multinational companies often wrestle with the question of how to transfer technologies to less developed countries. Any appraisal system should include an examination of internal factors, competitor analysis, and recipient country evaluation.
This article applies the theory of coalition formation in triads to channels of distribution. The theory explains alternative power strategies of weaker (smaller) channel…
This article applies the theory of coalition formation in triads to channels of distribution. The theory explains alternative power strategies of weaker (smaller) channel members to dominance by more powerful channel entities. Six pre‐coalition situations are examined to aid in predicting the possible conditions that may form, given an uneven distribution of power in the channel system. This type of analysis could be used to predict disadvantageous power combinations in the channels of distribution to the overall macro effectiveness of the channel system.
Technology is often defined as a valuable firm resource particularly relative to marketing functions in the organization (Barua, Kriebel, & Mukhopadhyay, 1995; Bharadwaj, 2000; Christensen, Johnson, & Rigby, 2002). When resources are customized to match a marketing strategy, they become firm specific, and thus central to firm performance. Marketing employees also may be defined as an essential resource, in the context of key marketing activities that need to be accomplished (Barney, 1986, 2001; Coff, 2002; Dess & Picken, 1999). Because both employees and technology play key roles, we ground this study in the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm (Barney, 1991, 2001; Peteraf, 1993; Wernerfelt, 1984).
This chapter examines major factors and processes that lead to the development of strategic global human resource management [SGHRM] capability in organizations doing…
This chapter examines major factors and processes that lead to the development of strategic global human resource management [SGHRM] capability in organizations doing business in emerging markets. The dynamism of this capability is hypothesized to increase as specific structural changes are initiated, such as an innovative practice of inpatriation. It is argued that the inpatriation provides the strategic coherence and flexibility necessary for effective organizational strategies in emerging markets. Through the examination of this innovation in strategic global human resource systems from a knowledge based-view theoretical perspective, the emergence of certain unique and valuable organizational outcomes (i.e. trust, commitment, social capital, and legitimacy) are explained. The potential problems and challenges of implementing an inpatriation program in global negotiations are also examined, with particular focus on gaining acceptance of inpatriate managers in the headquarters organization. In conclusion, specific directions for future research relative to the development of SGHRM capability based on inpatriation as core competency are outlined.