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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Paul Lyons

This paper sets forth a description and explanation of how action theory serves as the foundation for the training and performance management approach, performance

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets forth a description and explanation of how action theory serves as the foundation for the training and performance management approach, performance templates (P‐T). In recent years the efficacy of performance templates, given its limitations, has been demonstrated; however, the theory base for the P‐T approach had not been sufficiently developed. This paper aims to examine the content and efficacy of performance templates.

Design/methodology/approach

The P‐T method is set forth in detail with some examples. The theoretical bases of the P‐T approach, a training and development partnership among trainers, managers, and employees, are explained in detail.

Findings

The layered features of the action theory of Michael Frese fit very well with the interpersonal and intrapersonal events that make up the creation and use of performance templates. The P‐T method requires considerable mental work and the action theory helps explain the cognitive events that occur.

Practical implications

The paper sets forth the features of action theory, especially the foundation for metacognitive heuristics, that is, the short‐cut reasoning tools that individuals use to aid decision making. Aside from the application of the P‐T approach, this paper offers trainers a set of examples regarding how the trainer may influence learning by attending to the dynamics of metacognitive heuristics and cognitive style, concepts that have received very little attention in the training literature.

Originality/value

Action theory offers many features that help explain the regulation of learning and behavior. The template approach not only adds to the repertoire of training methods, it helps to illuminate the high‐order cognitive functioning that helps individuals regulate their learning and performance.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2006

Andreas Rauch and Michael Frese

We argue that entrepreneurship research should use meta-analysis to integrate the findings of the field. A meta-analytical approach has several advantages as compared with…

Abstract

We argue that entrepreneurship research should use meta-analysis to integrate the findings of the field. A meta-analytical approach has several advantages as compared with narrative reviews: First, narrative reviews are likely to bias empirical evidence because they are limited by the information-processing capacities of the reviewers (Tett, Jackson, & Rothstein, 1991). This is often a downward bias leading to the conclusion of little positive knowledge in the field. For example, frequency counts of significant results ignore sampling errors of individual studies, reliability problems of instruments, range restrictions of samples, dichotomization of continuous variables, imperfect construct validity, and extraneous factors (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). These issues usually result in a higher incidence of Type II errors (i.e., rejecting the hypothesis wrongly). Thus, narrative reviews are more likely to lead to the conclusion that there are no relationships between independent and dependent variables in entrepreneurship when in fact they are (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990; Tett et al., 1991). Second, meta-analysis accumulates studies based on a set of explicit decision rules and, therefore, is less biased by subjective perceptions of the reviewer than narrative reviews. Meta-analyses require judgments as well, e.g., when defining the area of the study or coding moderator variables. However, the decisions are public and open to criticism and replication by other scientists (Johnson & Eagly, 2000). Third, meta-analysis is based on many studies and, thus, avoids the influence of single studies. Fourth, meta-analysis controls for sampling error variance and, thus, controls for power deficits of individual studies (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). For example, the Brockhaus and Nord (1979) study is frequently cited in the entrepreneurship literature for providing evidence that there is no relationship of personality characteristics with entrepreneurship. However, this study is based on a small sample of 31 business owners and therefore, has serious statistical power problems. Noteworthy, the effect sizes of small samples are less precise in estimating a population value than effect sizes of larger samples. Fifth, meta-analyses can correct many errors of individual studies (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). Since meta-analyses estimate population correlations between given variables, it is important to correct for errors of studies (e.g., unreliability, range restriction, and sampling error) to achieve unbiased estimates. Sixth, meta-analysis allows an assessment of the magnitude of relationships and, thus, provides more precise and often comparable assessments of the validity of concepts. Thus, meta-analyses support the assessment of the practical significance of findings. Seventh, meta-analysis tests for variations in relationships across studies and, therefore, allows an assessment of the generalizeability of effects. If the size of reported relationships varies considerably between different studies, there will be context conditions that account for these variations. These context conditions are moderators that affect the size of relationships. The moderators may include study characteristics, method moderators, and theoretical moderators. Thus, meta-analyses also help to identify areas for new studies. Finally, meta-analysis techniques allow to test more than one independent and/or moderator variable by using methods based on regression analysis (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Using such procedures allows to estimate the independent contribution of variables on results, to control for methodological variables, and to test the interactions between moderator variables.

Details

Entrepreneurship: Frameworks And Empirical Investigations From Forthcoming Leaders Of European Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-428-7

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2020

Virginia Cha, Yi Ruan and Michael Frese

This study enriches the theory of effectuation by discussing the four independent dimensions of effectuation and their relationships with causation. Additionally, we fill…

Abstract

This study enriches the theory of effectuation by discussing the four independent dimensions of effectuation and their relationships with causation. Additionally, we fill the gap in prior literature by showing how entrepreneurial experience moderates the relationship between effectuation and innovativeness of the venture. Our study of 171 practising entrepreneurs regarding their entrepreneurial decision-making logic yielded multiple findings. The authors find that entrepreneurs rely on causation as well as effectuation in their decision-making; the more experienced entrepreneurs are, the more they actually use causation; and entrepreneurial experience moderates the relationship between effectuation and innovativeness of the venture firm.

Details

The Entrepreneurial Behaviour: Unveiling the cognitive and emotional aspect of entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-508-6

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Book part
Publication date: 24 January 2011

Ronald Bledow, Michael Frese and Verena Mueller

We develop a new look on leadership for innovation and propose that effective leaders alternate between a broad range of behaviors and tune their approach to the changing…

Abstract

We develop a new look on leadership for innovation and propose that effective leaders alternate between a broad range of behaviors and tune their approach to the changing demands of innovation. This is referred to as ambidextrous leadership. As the importance of different leader behaviors varies not only across time but also across contexts, ambidextrous leadership takes different shapes depending on contextual conditions. We discuss culture as an important contextual condition that holds implications for effective ambidextrous leadership. Cultures have different strengths and weaknesses for innovation that can be leveraged or compensated. We use the cultural characteristics identified by the GLOBE project to discuss how leaders can take culture into account when leading for innovation.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-468-0

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Isa Nsereko

The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to examine the relationship between comprehensive social competence, entrepreneurial tenacity and social entrepreneurial action…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to examine the relationship between comprehensive social competence, entrepreneurial tenacity and social entrepreneurial action and (2) to test the mediating role of entrepreneurial tenacity in the relationship between comprehensive social competence and social entrepreneurial action among social ventures in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is cross-sectional and quantitative. Data were analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences and analysis of moment structures.

Findings

Results show that both comprehensive social competence and entrepreneurial tenacity are significantly associated with social entrepreneurial action. Results further indicate that entrepreneurial tenacity partially mediates the relationship between comprehensive social competence and social entrepreneurial action.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this study provides initial empirical evidence on the relationship between comprehensive social competence, entrepreneurial tenacity and social entrepreneurial action using evidence from a developing African country – Uganda. Mostly, this provides an initial evidence of the mediating role of entrepreneurial tenacity on the relationship between comprehensive social competence and social entrepreneurial action.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2010

Paul Lyons

The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach.

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2059

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step‐by‐step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods, while clear examples of situated cognition and learning, are derived from several other important theory bases to include constructivism, experiential learning, mental models, transformative learning, and action theory.

Findings

The theory base offers support for the activities and steps contained in scenistic training methods. The theories, in combination, address motivation, distinct learning tasks and activities, and the regulation of learning. To an extent, scenistic methods invite the trainee to create and manage learning with guidance and support from trainers. This delegation of responsibility to the trainee has powerful motivational consequences.

Research limitations/implications

In this article a detailed presentation of the concepts and theories that support the development and use of scenistic training methods is offered. Even though the efficacy of scenistic methods are supported with empirical research, the theory‐base for the methods has not been carefully explained.

Practical implications

Most of the development of scenistic methods has taken place in the past ten years, a time period in which there has not been a lot of interest displayed in new training approaches. This article seeks to illuminate the concept for practitioners and scholars of training as well as to offer detailed theory grounding for scenistic methods.

Originality/value

Originality and value are combined in the expression of the details of a somewhat generic model of scenistic methods as well as a reasonably broad perspective of theories that help to explain the dynamics of the steps in the approach.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Through a survey of 200 employees working in five of the thirty establishments analysed in previous research about the microeconomic effects of reducing the working time…

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18444

Abstract

Through a survey of 200 employees working in five of the thirty establishments analysed in previous research about the microeconomic effects of reducing the working time (Cahier 25), the consequences on employees of such a reduction can be assessed; and relevant attitudes and aspirations better known.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2009

Melody L. Wollan, Mary F. Sully de Luque and Marko Grunhagen

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of…

Abstract

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of in‐group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, and humane orientation, and their differential effect on helping extra‐role behavior in a diverse workforce are examined. Theoretical implications provide guidance for future empirical research in this area, and provide managers with more realistic expectations of employee performance in the workplace.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Ibrahim Duyar and Inayet Aydin

This study focuses on assistant principals, the “forgotten future workforce” of educational leadership. We explored the current landscape of assistant principalship within…

Abstract

This study focuses on assistant principals, the “forgotten future workforce” of educational leadership. We explored the current landscape of assistant principalship within the context of work performance, including both task and discretionary performance, and the future career aspirations of assistant principals from a cross-national perspective. Specifically, the study aimed to fulfill the following objectives: (a) to identify the factors affecting the task and discretionary performance of assistant principals, (b) to identify the factors affecting three future career aspirations of assistant principals, and (c) to determine whether the influences of these factors differ by national origin. Personal initiative and perceived organizational support (POS) were the independent variables. This study also examined the demographic attributes of the participants and their schools. Two randomly selected samples, which composed of 227 Turkish and 144 American assistant principals were the participants. The data-gathering instrument incorporated the revised versions of the Personal Initiative Scale (Fay & Frese, 2001), the Perceived Organizational Support Scale (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986), and the School Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale (DiPaola & Tschannen-Moran, 2001). The findings of the study showed that personal initiative and POS significantly predicted the task performance, discretionary performance, and certain future career aspirations of assistant principals. National origin appeared to be a significantly differentiating factor of the assistant principals' task performances, discretionary performances, and future career aspirations. We drew conclusions and provided suggestions for future research.

Details

Discretionary Behavior and Performance in Educational Organizations: The Missing Link in Educational Leadership and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-643-0

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2016

Abstract

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-138-8

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