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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Michael F. DiPaola and Paula Maria Mendes da Costa Neves

Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) have been studied in both private and public sector organizations in countries around the globe. The purpose of this study is to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) have been studied in both private and public sector organizations in countries around the globe. The purpose of this study is to compare the perceptions of the OCB construct between American and Portuguese public secondary school teachers and test an operational measure of the construct for schools across the two cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

Teachers' perceptions of the OCB in their schools were measured using the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. This operational measure, developed in the USA, was translated for use with Portuguese teachers. Data from samples of US and Portuguese secondary schools were compared. Principal axis factor analyses, reliability coefficients, and other descriptive data were used to verify the factor structures, number of factors, and reliability of the measure across these two cultures.

Findings

Both versions of the OCB Scale (American and Portuguese) were reliable and stable; they worked well for both high schools and middle schools in Portugal and in the USA. One factor of organizational citizenship emerged. The operational measure used to measure OCB in public schools in this study is reliable and stable, despite cultural differences.

Practical implications

OCB are important because they influence organizational effectiveness. Despite cultural variations, and dramatic historical differences in their public education systems, this operational measure of OCB was effective. It provides researchers and practitioners a reliable and valid measure to assess the OCB of school organizations.

Originality/value

This was the first attempt to determine the integrity of an operational measure of OCB across cultures. The construct has been studied in schools in different countries using different operational measures, which blurred the definition of the construct and made it difficult to study and compare to other variables of effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Misty M. Kirby and Michael F. DiPaola

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among academic optimism, community engagement, and student achievement in urban elementary schools across one district.

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2607

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among academic optimism, community engagement, and student achievement in urban elementary schools across one district.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from all 35 urban elementary schools across one district in Virginia, USA. Correlation, multiple regression, and factor analyses were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

In schools where the faculty are optimistic that their students can succeed despite the obstacle of low socioeconomic status (SES) and where the community is engaged, students are more likely to achieve at higher levels. Findings of this study also supported that community engagement, collective efficacy, trust in clients, and academic press do act as predictors to collectively influence student achievement.

Research limitations/implications

The Goddard measure for collective efficacy was replaced with one developed for more challenging settings such as urban schools.

Practical implications

Academic optimism and community engagement were found to work in ways that improve student achievement. Understanding the social contexts in classrooms and schools allows education leaders to work with faculty in examining current practice, in an effort to improve the educational outcomes for all students, even those who must overcome the obstacles to learning posed by their low SES.

Originality/value

With only one previous study of this construct in an urban elementary setting, the current study sought to test those findings in an effort to continue pushing this research agenda into urban settings.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Michael F. DiPaola

The contributors of this volume provide new insights and perspectives on discretionary behaviors in educational organizations. Such behaviors have long been recognized as…

Abstract

The contributors of this volume provide new insights and perspectives on discretionary behaviors in educational organizations. Such behaviors have long been recognized as essential to organizational effectiveness. Long ago Barnard (1938) characterized the willingness of individual employees to contribute cooperative efforts to an organization as indispensable. Katz and Kahn (1966) argued that extra-role behaviors are crucial in improving organizational effectiveness and that when individuals only perform prescribed duties, failure is inevitable.

Details

Discretionary Behavior and Performance in Educational Organizations: The Missing Link in Educational Leadership and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-643-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Michael F. DiPaola and Wayne K. Hoy

Meeting the demands for increased effectiveness of schools cannot occur without systemic change. But the natural reaction to change is typically tension, resistance, and…

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Abstract

Meeting the demands for increased effectiveness of schools cannot occur without systemic change. But the natural reaction to change is typically tension, resistance, and conflict. This analysis distinguishes between constructive and destructive conflict. First, conflict is conceptualized in terms of cognitive and affective types. Then organizational formalization is considered in terms of enabling or coercive procedures. A typology of change is created by cross‐partitioning the two types of conflict and formalization. The framework is useful in predicting the impact of change: from situations that catalyze and facilitate change to those that frustrate and inhibit it. Finally, the analysis summarizes key factors that administrators should consider as they attempt to use conflict to facilitate rather than inhibit constructive change and as they try to avoid and limit destructive change.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Michael F. DiPaola and Megan Tschannen‐Moran

Rational and open system theories offer divergent sets of tactics on how best to deal with factors outside the boundary of the school. This study compared two competing…

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Abstract

Purpose

Rational and open system theories offer divergent sets of tactics on how best to deal with factors outside the boundary of the school. This study compared two competing strategies that emerge from these theories: bridging and buffering. The impact of how schools interact with their environments was examined in relation to student achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The competing theories were operationalized into two survey measures that tapped teacher perceptions of their schools’ orientations toward the environment. Using schools as the unit of analysis, two competing perspectives were contrasted together with their relative impact on student achievement on standardized tests.

Findings

Multiple regression was used to assess the relative weight of each of these constructs in explaining the variance in student achievement. Bridging strategies explained a greater proportion of the variance than buffering.

Research limitations/implications

Data were limited to teacher perceptions of the strategies employed by their schools to relate to the external environments. Enactments of these strategies are generally conceived and initiated by school administrators. Schools are dependent on their environments for survival. If the community is perceived as a threat, school leaders will attempt to insulate the technical core of teaching by buffering teachers from environmental disturbances. If, however, the community is perceived as a potential resource, school leaders will attempt to build bridges and create a symbiotic interdependence. Findings suggest that the latter is a more productive strategy for school administrators to employ.

Originality/value

To date, little research has been done on these competing strategies that would guide the practice of school leaders in how to best invest their energies in relation to their external environments.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Khalid Arar

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Abstract

Details

Discretionary Behavior and Performance in Educational Organizations: The Missing Link in Educational Leadership and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-643-0

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

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507

Abstract

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Yahya Altınkurt holds Ph.D. from Anadolu University, Turkey. He is assistant professor at Dumlupınar University Faculty of Education in Kütahya. Dr. Altınkurt's research…

Abstract

Yahya Altınkurt holds Ph.D. from Anadolu University, Turkey. He is assistant professor at Dumlupınar University Faculty of Education in Kütahya. Dr. Altınkurt's research focuses on strategic planning, organizational justice, organizational citizenship, and leadership in schools. His most recent books include Assessment of Researches of School Administration (2008, Anadolu University Publishing coauthored with E. Ağaoğlu, M. Ceylan, E. Kesim, and T. Madden). Dr. Altınkurt's research has appeared in various journals including Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, Education and Science, Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, International Journal of Human Sciences, Academic Sight.

Details

Discretionary Behavior and Performance in Educational Organizations: The Missing Link in Educational Leadership and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-643-0

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

A. Ross Thomas

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367

Abstract

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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