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Describes how systems theory, and in particular “hard” and “soft” systems modelling, can provide a framework for the study of internal control and auditing inside organizations. Concludes that useful empirical research and case study work can be carried out using “hard” and “soft” systems modelling. Such research should make a positive contribution to the body of knowledge concerning the nature of the internal control and the practice of internal audit in organizations.
Total Quality Management (TQM) will have major implications for theinternal audit function. Argues that TQM concepts, such as peopleempowerment, are incompatible with…
Total Quality Management (TQM) will have major implications for the internal audit function. Argues that TQM concepts, such as people empowerment, are incompatible with traditional notions of compliance with prescribed internal controls, policies and procedures. Suggests that the fundamental principles which govern the practice of internal audit are incompatible with TQM environments. Examines a number of scenarios to assess the impact of TQM on the internal audit function. These issues may offer a basis for the conduct of further research.
Argues that total quality management (TQM), with its emphasis onpeople empowerment, is incompatible with financial– andcompliance‐based internal auditing. Examines the…
Argues that total quality management (TQM), with its emphasis on people empowerment, is incompatible with financial– and compliance‐based internal auditing. Examines the implications of TQM for internal auditors in New Zealand manufacturing companies. The empirical evidence suggests that one‐third of the companies examined do not have an internal auditing function. Nevertheless, in firms that do have an internal audit function, internal auditors make an important contribution to TQM. Internal auditors in these companies participate fully in quality programmes and they are less likely to be concerned purely with the propriety of financial systems. Arguably, this change in focus will have major implications for the future training and education of internal auditors. Concludes that unless the internal audit function responds proactively to the challenges of TQM, firms may look to other agencies to perform quality systems reviews.
Agency theory is extensively employed in the accounting literature to explain and predict the appointment and performance of external auditors. Argues that agency theory also provides a useful theoretical framework for the study of the internal auditing function. Proposes that agency theory not only helps to explain and predict the existence of internal audit but that it also helps to explain the role and responsibilities assigned to internal auditors by the organization, and that agency theory predicts how the internal audit function is likely to be affected by organizational change. Concludes that agency theory provides a basis for rich research which can benefit both the academic community and the internal auditing profession.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of the metaphor of capital, and to chart the development of the multiple capitals concept in the International…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of the metaphor of capital, and to chart the development of the multiple capitals concept in the International < IR > Framework and consider how it might develop and be used. In doing so, the paper discusses the implications of the contributions to this special issue in the further development of the capitals concept.
The authors draw on documents of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) and review the literature on capitals to consider the formation of the metaphor of multiple capitals. This is reflected upon while recognising the varied involvement of the authors with the IIRC capitals conception. The challenges of conceiving a multiple capitals framework are critiqued with reference to empirical and theoretical contributions drawn from recognition of planetary boundaries, gendered capitals, power and intersection of capitals and important practical and conceptual insights raised by papers in this special issue.
The authors find that the agenda of the IIRC is a shift from a “financial capital market system” to an “inclusive capital market system” through recognition of multiple capitals and integrated reporting and thinking. It is emphasised that their vision is not intended as a call for the measurement of these various capitals in monetary terms alone. Through insights from research on planetary boundaries and gendered capitals, the authors critique the potential communsurability of capitals and make visible potential tensions between them. Some of the challenges and opportunities when reporting on multiple capitals are recognised. These include: use of the capitals terminology; analysing connectivity between the capitals; the extent to which value created (and depleted) by each capital should be monetised and highlight possibilities for future research.
Reflecting on the vision of the IIRC, the authors use the critical potential of the metaphor to highlight the IIRC’s vision and understand the role of multiple capitals and potential tensions between them. The authors provide normative insights into the need for engagement on the philosophies of integrated thinking and symbolism of capital and multiple capitals as the way forward.
It is through discussions around multiple capitals – what is in, what is out, how capital is valued – that metaphors will be (re)created. By considering the notion of capital in < IR > and critiquing this with reference to research insights, the authors seek to open up debate on the framing of multiple capitals.
The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.
Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…
Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.
Widespread adoption of reporting frameworks has contributed to current global practices undertaken by firms to report social, environmental and economic impact. The Global…
Widespread adoption of reporting frameworks has contributed to current global practices undertaken by firms to report social, environmental and economic impact. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), the most widely used of those frameworks, has produced several generations of guidelines. Their third-generation guidelines (G3), which had the most widespread and long-term use, relied on a series of application levels to convey the quantity and quality of disclosures. The firm’s choice of application level exemplified its corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure strategy. The purpose of this study is to answer the call of scholars for a comprehensive explanation of a firm’s CSR disclosure strategy and suggested researching of the conceptual underpinnings of legitimacy, stakeholder, resource dependence and institutional theories.
Given this call, a comprehensive model is tested that explores relationships arising from these four major theories and the choice of GRI application levels. The model includes four constructs: non-financial corporate characteristics, firm financial performance, stakeholder involvement and environmental turbulence.
Unexpectedly, the findings do not show differences with respect to the theoretical underpinnings of CSR disclosure and the GRI disclosure levels.
Despite their widespread use, GRI was concerned that the G3’s application levels could be misunderstood and that the framework needed conceptual improvement. These concerns led to the elimination of application levels with the launch of GRI’s fourth-generation guidelines (G4) in 2013. The findings support the need for conceptual improvement and the discontinuation of the application level system in the G4 guidelines. They also suggest the need for additional research to examine disclosure choices over time, to make understand corporate disclosure strategies.