The approach to organizational learning in this article is anchored in structural and cultural facets. The structural facet focuses on organizational learning mechanisms…
The approach to organizational learning in this article is anchored in structural and cultural facets. The structural facet focuses on organizational learning mechanisms, which are institutionalized structural and procedural arrangements allowing organizations to systematically collect, analyze, store, disseminate, and use information that is relevant to the performance of the organization. The cultural facet focuses on the shared values, without which these mechanisms are likely to be enacted as rituals rather than as means for real learning. The article describes examples of this approach and focuses mainly on the role and style of organizational leaders in determining values that facilitate effective learning.
This paper aims to clarify the term “tacit knowledge” and suggests the “onion model” as a way to explore conceptually linked layers of tacit knowledge. The model allows…
This paper aims to clarify the term “tacit knowledge” and suggests the “onion model” as a way to explore conceptually linked layers of tacit knowledge. The model allows the application of different methodologies to elicit tacit knowledge in each layer, the ability to infer tacit knowledge in other layers from tacit knowledge gained in another layer and the exploration of the dynamics of tacit knowledge among the various layers presented in the model. Conceptual and practical advantages compared to prior works on tacit knowledge are discussed.
The main theoretical and methodological dilemmas discussed in the literature regarding tacit knowledge are reviewed. The “onion model” presented in this paper suggests an approach and methodologies that address the issues raised in the literature. The different layers of the model are demonstrated by prior research studies.
The “onion model” discussed in this study points to various layers of tacit knowledge and the links among them, allowing a research-based approach, as well as various practices.
This paper discusses different layers of tacit knowledge relying on previous works that have dealt with these layers independently. The model as a whole and the dynamics among the layers are yet to be empirically investigated.
The “onion model” provides a conceptual framework that can be used for research and diagnosis aimed at exploring tacit knowledge that can serve individual and organizational development.
The approach discussed in this paper addresses some major problems discussed in the literature on tacit knowledge.
Offers a conceptual framework which relates leadership developmentto theories of leadership. The framework suggests that programmes ofleadership development should include…
Offers a conceptual framework which relates leadership development to theories of leadership. The framework suggests that programmes of leadership development should include three components: developing self‐efficacy in the domain of leadership, developing awareness of different modes of motivating others in correspondence with different theories of leadership, and developing specific leadership skills (e.g. giving feedback). Also discusses the “added value” of such programmes to how leaders develop on their own. Specific principles for designing programmes for different types of leadership are outlined.
We know a great deal today about the impact of transformational leaders, their actions, typical behaviors and their ways of influencing others (Bass, 1985, 1999a, b; Bass & Avolio, 1990). However, we know relatively little about the psychological substructure, the internal world of these leaders, namely who they are and how they developed this way. These aspects were raised earlier in Bass’s early work (Bass, 1985) but have received little attention so far (Bass, 1998; Judge & Bono, 2000). We argue that the internal world of a transformational leader is characterized by a motivation to lead, leadership self-efficacy, motivation and capacity to relate to others in a pro-social way, optimism and openness to new experiences and viewpoints of others. We further argue that the origins of the ability and motivation to be a transformational leader lie in childhood experiences, and that the development of this ability and motivation can be understood and conceptualized by means of major developmental theories such as attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969, 1973, 1977, 1988). On the basis of these theories, we suggest a researchable conceptual framework for characterization of the internal world and the development of transformational leaders.
The paper aims to present a conceptual model that delineates the psychological substructures (“building blocks”) and their impact on the major learning processes required…
The paper aims to present a conceptual model that delineates the psychological substructures (“building blocks”) and their impact on the major learning processes required for leader development.
Based on theories in developmental psychology, it is argued that certain variables formed in early childhood are “building blocks” for leader development in later phases of the individual's life. The influence of these variables on leader development is discussed.
The building blocks – self‐confidence, pro‐social orientation, proactive optimistic orientation, openness, along with high motivation to lead – are precursors for (socialized) leader development. Their significance and how they affect two major learning processes of leaders – experiential learning and vicarious learning – are discussed.
The article presents a conceptualization that is research oriented and can be tested empirically. Most of the concepts discussed have valid and reliable measures that can be used in future research. The directions discussed also have practical implications, particularly with regard to methodical selection and development of leaders – issues that are of special concern to large organizations.
The transformational leadership concept differentiates betweeninstrumental motivation and normative commitment. The high motivationlevels, the relative freedom given to…
The transformational leadership concept differentiates between instrumental motivation and normative commitment. The high motivation levels, the relative freedom given to junior officers, and the esprit de corps in infantry units in the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) have made the concept of transformational leadership highly suitable for junior commanders. Reports on a three‐day transformational leadership workshop for officer cadets designed and conducted by civilian psychologists at the IDF School for Leadership Development. Found qualitative and quantitative attitudinal data collected for six consecutive training cycles over a period of 18 months to be very favourable. A further programme attempts to integrate the transformational leadership model as an ongoing effort throughout the infantry cadets′ six‐month training programme.
This chapter deals with the issue of distance between leaders and followers. I claim that distance from a leader is not only a reflection of time and space (i.e.…
This chapter deals with the issue of distance between leaders and followers. I claim that distance from a leader is not only a reflection of time and space (i.e., objective distance) but also connected to followers’ emotions toward the leader manifested in their construal of their leaders. I report the findings of initial investigations that demonstrate how the patterns of construal of leaders as close or distant can be explained by construal level theory as well as through psychological theories of emotions. Finally, I discuss implications to theories of leadership and followership.
The history of a management development programme in the IsraelDefence Forces (IDF) is presented. The programme was developed inresponse to two problems which handicapped…
The history of a management development programme in the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) is presented. The programme was developed in response to two problems which handicapped internal consultants in the IDF, their low power position and the inappropriateness of organisation development as a paradigm for applying behavioural sciences in this organisation. Both problems were alleviated by institutionalising a management development programme in the curriculum of two officer schools of the IDF, and by changing behavioural scientists′ roles from consultants to instructors.
Coaching is a much‐discussed topic on which little has been written at a thoeretical level. Relates coaching to Bandura′s theory of sefefficacy and Schon′s work on developing reflective practitioners. Claiming that enhancement of self‐efficacy (a sense of mastery in a particular domain) is central to coaching, describes how self‐efficacy is acquired in general, how it can be enhanced in coaching on leadership, and what characterizes good coaches.