Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Mina Bahrami, Makan Cheraghpour, Sima Jafarirad, Pejman Alavinejad and Bahman Cheraghian

Metabolic syndrome contains metabolic disorders that have association with other chronic diseases. Melatonin is a bioactive compound which is found in plants and also…

Abstract

Purpose

Metabolic syndrome contains metabolic disorders that have association with other chronic diseases. Melatonin is a bioactive compound which is found in plants and also produced in the body. The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of melatonin supplement on metabolic syndrome components, also leptin and adiponectin blood concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Design/methodology/approach

A double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 subjects with metabolic syndrome. Participants received 6 mg/day melatonin or placebo before bedtime for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of treatment period, blood samples were collected and biochemical parameters were measured. In addition, blood pressure and anthropometric indices were examined before and after the supplementation. Independent sample t-test was used to compare changes in metabolic syndrome components between the two study groups.

Findings

Results showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (−1.54 vs −0.04 cm; p = 0.036), systolic blood pressure (−3.52 vs 0.79 mmHg; p = 0.020), diastolic blood pressure (−1.50 vs 1.73 mmHg; p = 0.014), serum leptin concentration (−2.54 vs 0.27ng/ml; p = 0.041) and an elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.19 vs −0.79 mg/dl; p = 0.038) in the melatonin group compared to the placebo.

Research limitations/implications

If insulin concentration had been measured, it might have revealed better interpretation of melatonin effect on fasting blood glucose.

Originality/value

This study showed that melatonin as a nutritional supplement improved most metabolic syndrome components and concentration of leptin in the melatonin group compared to the placebo.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Yetunde Aderonke Adeyemi, Oluseye Olusegun Onabanjo, Silifat Ajoke Sanni, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, David Olaulowa Afolabi and Catherine Adebukola Oladoyinbo

There is a global increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with relative paucity of data on the burden of this syndrome in developing countries like…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a global increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with relative paucity of data on the burden of this syndrome in developing countries like Nigeria. This study evaluated the prevalence of MetS among apparently healthy subjects in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 550 (249 men, 301 women) healthy subjects recruited using multi-stage technique. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard procedures and instruments. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured in all the subjects. Blood samples were collected from selected subjects and analyzed for hematological variables.

Findings

The prevalence of MetS was 36.8 per cent using the IDF criteria and 34.6 per cent using the NCEP-ATP III criteria. In all, 1.64 per cent (9) of respondents were underweight, 22.55 per cent (124) were of normal body mass index, 49.64 per cent (273) were overweight and 26.17 per cent (144) were obese. The mean waist circumference and waist to hip ratio for male and female were 83.27 ± 2.6 cm and 0.84 ± 0.1 and 86.22 ± 13.9 cm and 0.84 ± 0.1, respectively. Total cholesterol was elevated in 16.04 per cent of the respondents, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in 41.83 per cent of the respondents. High values of triglycerides were observed in 5.79 per cent of respondents. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in 40.85 per cent of the respondents. This study showed that a huge burden of MetS exists among the study population.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design of this study limits inference regarding causality and effects. Also, there was no controlled case in the study.

Practical implications

There is the need for accurate knowledge of the MetS of the population to inform public health policy for mitigation.

Social implications

MetS has been described as a global time bomb, with a quarter of the world’s adults estimated to be having the condition. It will place a burden on social services if a lot of working population are forced to retire early due to MetS.

Originality/value

The findings are pointers to the probable magnitude of the co-morbid factors of cardiovascular diseases as encapsulated in the MetS in our environment.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Martha R. Crowther, Cassandra D. Ford, Latrice D. Vinson, Chao-Hui Huang, Ernest Wayde and Susan Guin

Older adults are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MSX). Given the growing rural older adult population and the unknown prevalence rate of MSX in rural…

Abstract

Purpose

Older adults are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MSX). Given the growing rural older adult population and the unknown prevalence rate of MSX in rural communities, the purpose of this paper is to assess the risk factors for MSX among rural elders.

Design/methodology/approach

Individuals aged 55+ from four West Alabama rural communities were assessed by an interdisciplinary healthcare team via a mobile unit (n=216). Descriptive analyses and analysis of variances (ANOVA) were conducted to assess the effect of gender, race and community on the number of risk factors of MSX among rural elders.

Findings

Results of a three-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between gender, age and community on the number of MSX risk factors [F (16,193)= 2.41, p <0.01]. Rural communities with lower social economic status (SES) and predominantly African American residents were at higher risk for developing MSX compared to communities with higher SES [F(3, 68) = 7.42, p<0.05].

Practical implications

Findings suggest low SES rural communities are at risk of developing MSX. Innovative approaches such as mobile healthcare delivery are crucial to providing quality healthcare and preventive health screens to underserved rural older adult communities.

Originality/value

Limited research is available on assessing rural midlife and older adults at risk for metabolic syndrome largely due to lack of communication or transportation infrastructure and their history of negative experiences with public institutions. This research demonstrates that these barriers can be addressed.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Elif Inan-Eroglu and Aylin Ayaz

Recent evidence suggests that especially processed foods may lead to undesirable metabolic effects in gut microbiota. The emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners that are…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent evidence suggests that especially processed foods may lead to undesirable metabolic effects in gut microbiota. The emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners that are added to processed foods may play a role in the progression of the diseases through the modulation of microbiota in mice. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a narrative review of the effects of emulsifiers and artificial sweeteners which are mainly in consumed in the Western diet, to the gut microbiota by mainly focusing on the experimental studies.

Findings

Although in vivo studies and animal model studies showed various adverse effects of sweeteners and emulsifiers to microbiota, studies should be conducted in humans to investigate the effects of these food additives to human microbiota by making dietary interventions in the context of ethical rules.

Originality/value

In future, studies will allow us to draw more definitive conclusion whether human population consuming sweeteners and emulsifiers are at risk.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 9 October 2012

Nancy D. Campbell

Purpose – The chapter examines the historical pattern of interconnections between drug policy, research, and treatment in light of recent theoretical developments in the…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter examines the historical pattern of interconnections between drug policy, research, and treatment in light of recent theoretical developments in the medicalization thesis advanced in the sociology of medicine.

Methodology/approach – The chapter uses interpretive methods to examine how the social construction of addiction as a “chronic, relapsing brain disorder” converges with or diverges from the conceptual framework offered by sociological theorists of medicalization and biomedicalization.

Findings – The approach adopted shows how the meanings of the bio/medicalization of addiction shifted and circulated within and beyond the institutions developed to respond to drug addiction as a hybrid social, medical, and biomedical condition during the 20th century.

Social implications – Bio/medical frameworks for addiction are the outcome of historical attempts to influence public attitudes and develop effective methods to treat and prevent this “disease” in ways that would positively affect the quality of life of people living with addictions.

Originality/value – This original contribution addresses both strengths and limitations of bio/medical models, assessing how their influence has changed over time.

Details

Critical Perspectives on Addiction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-930-1

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1979

At every period of time marked by years, the seasons by turns and twists in history, among country folk especially, the years of great storms and hard winters; in law…

Abstract

At every period of time marked by years, the seasons by turns and twists in history, among country folk especially, the years of great storms and hard winters; in law enforcement, the passing of some far‐reaching, profound statutory measure, there is this almost universal tendency to look back—over your shoulder‐assessing changes, progressive or otherwise, discerning trends and assaying prospects. We are about to emerge from the seventies—battered but unbowed!—into the new decade of the eighties, perhaps with a feeling that things can only get better.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 81 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Ala Qatatsheh, Reema Tayyem, Islam Al-Shami, Murad A. Al-Holy and Abdallah S. Al-rethaia

This paper aims to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among female university students and employees at the Hashemite University (HU) and, then, to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among female university students and employees at the Hashemite University (HU) and, then, to identify risk factors for developing vitamin D deficiency among this population. Vitamin D deficiency remains widespread in many countries, including Jordan, and has been linked to many diseases.

Design/methodology/approach

In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were taken from 320 healthy females – 160 students and 160 employees – aged between 18 and 65 years old who presented for routine checkup at the medical center of HU. Level of direct sun exposure and barriers to getting enough sunlight (dress style, skin color and sunscreen use) were questioned. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured, and the daily intakes of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous were estimated through completing an adopted food frequency questionnaire. All required data were collected using a face-to-face interview by trained dietitians. The software package ESHA was used to determine the daily intake from the nutrients.

Findings

The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD < 25 nmol/L) was 31.2 per cent in female students compared to 20.5 per cent in female employees. Prolonged exposure to sun was independently related to vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio = 4.55); participants exposed for 30 minutes daily were at a higher risk for vitamin D deficiency. However, estimated vitamin D intake was not affected by age and working status.

Research limitations/implications

The present study has some important limitations. First, this study based on serum 25-OHD results, which alone, without biochemical parameters such as parathyroid hormone (either primary or secondary), might be linked to accelerated degradation of 25-OHD and shorter half-life. Second, the half-life of 25-OHD was not consistently available. Third, the smaller sample size of participants. Finally, the present study did not distinguish between intake of vitamin D2 and D3. This limitation caused the inability to precisely evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the studied population.

Practical implications

This study indicates that it is crucial to create awareness concerning the daily intake of vitamin D in the community to avoid long-term complications related to vitamin D deficiency, by using urgent measures including vitamin D supplementation and fortification of some highly consumed food, milk and other dairy products. Educational endeavors about sensible sun exposure should be implemented to improve vitamin D status among this population. The findings of the present study call for action at the national level to build strategies for health promotion about vitamin D supplementation in groups at risk for low supplementation (e.g. younger female students, with previous chronic diseases and poor sun exposure), and engage these populations in strategizing for successful and demographically relevant outreach and education in their own communities along with effort to prevent obesity and diabetes as well as raising awareness through simple programs to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency among women living in Jordan.

Originality/value

The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among female university students in this study emphasizes the necessity of vitamin D supplementation and calls for action to build strategies for health promotion concerning vitamin D supplementation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2007

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

1 – 10 of over 1000