Search results1 – 10 of 13
Merl M. Hackbart and James R. Ramsey
State budgeting processes and decision making have been the subject of numerous research efforts. Such studies have been based upon the premise that improved budget…
State budgeting processes and decision making have been the subject of numerous research efforts. Such studies have been based upon the premise that improved budget processes will improve budget decisions and resource allocations. Among the specific topics of such studies have been the nature and focus of state budgetary processes and innovations as well as inquiries into the training and background of state budgeting personnel. This study focused on the perceived contributions of budget theory, processes and concepts by state budget practitioners. The inquiry also analyzed the differences between state budget directors and their staffs regarding such "perceived" contributions. The results indicate a high degree on similarity of perceived values of the various budget theories, processes and concepts by both groups. Budget process and evaluation concepts were identified as valued concepts which enhanced their budget preparation and execution skills. Both groups indicated a high value for revenue and expenditure forecasting. Such high values probably result, in part, from the fiscal stress encountered by state governments over the past decade. Overall, the study further clarifies which budgeting concepts and processes are most highly valued by state budget practitioners. In addition, the results provide insights for the design of budgeting and financial management courses in public administration and professional development programs.
Meagan M. Jordan and Merl Hackbart
There has been a great deal of research regarding the success and impact of state performance-based budgeting with findings ranging from hopeful to critical. Previous…
There has been a great deal of research regarding the success and impact of state performance-based budgeting with findings ranging from hopeful to critical. Previous findings have also indicated that the success and impact of implementation have varied across the states. The practitioners' varied views of successful performance implementation are likely linked to their varied views of the purpose of performance implementation. We survey state executive budget officers regarding performance-based budget goals, implementation successes, and obstacles. Our findings suggest that program accountability as a goal, rather than budget allocation, makes a stronger foundation for determining performance-based budget success.
Gabriela S. Wolfson and Merl M. Hackbart
Using data obtained from the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), we investigate modifications in state tax codes to determine their characteristics, the…
Using data obtained from the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), we investigate modifications in state tax codes to determine their characteristics, the apparent trends of state tax reform, and whether changes constituted comprehensive reform or mere incremental adjustments to existing tax structures. Based on the data, we find that few states achieved comprehensive tax reform in the 1990s despite the fiscal surplus that provided an environment conducive to widespread change. Moreover, we find that a significant number of changes that were enacted in the 1990s involved increases or decreases in state tax revenue that were ultimately tied to economic cycles. We suggest that adequacy in state tax collections may be the most common tax principle adhered to with regard to changes in tax structure. We also conclude that reform efforts in the 1990s were most successful when approached in an incremental fashion in the absence of a significant precipitating reform driver.
Much of the budgeting literature has focused on the questions of “how” budgets are prepared and “how” budget decisions are made. Minimal attention has been directed to…
Much of the budgeting literature has focused on the questions of “how” budgets are prepared and “how” budget decisions are made. Minimal attention has been directed to “how” budgets are executed. This paper focuses on this issue with special emphasis on state government budget execution processes. The paper provides an overview of the similarities and differences of state and federal budget execution follows by an assessment of how state balanced budget requirements place special responsibilities on state budget offices to monitor “within” budget execution year expenditures and revenues. Actions which may be taken to insure that state budgets are balanced are discussed. These actions are enumerated and analyzed in terms of legislative and executive branch authority and responsibility shifts.
Juita-Elena (Wie) Yusuf and Lenahan O’Connell
The International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) was established to reduce the complexities of reporting, allocating, and collecting diesel fuel taxes from interstate…
The International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) was established to reduce the complexities of reporting, allocating, and collecting diesel fuel taxes from interstate commercial carriers operating in multiple jurisdictions. This paper examines IFTA’s effectiveness as a multistate tax administration model from the perspective of the states. We identify three criteria of effectiveness and use a survey of IFTA officials in the member states and provinces as well as additional data provided by IFTA, Inc to assess IFTA’s effectiveness. We conclude that (1) IFTA promotes inter-jurisdictional cooperation and revenue transfers; (2) carriers do not locate disproportionately in low tax jurisdictions; and (3) IFTA’s audit system, which relies on carrier record-keeping, may not be effectively preventing tax evasion.
W. Bartley Hildreth and Aman Khan
Changing political landscape often renews the call for dramatic changes to federal community and economic development grant-in-aid programs. The most dramatic proposal in…
Changing political landscape often renews the call for dramatic changes to federal community and economic development grant-in-aid programs. The most dramatic proposal in recent years was President Bush’s 2006 call to consolidate federal assistance programs for communities into a new block grant known as the Strengthening America’s Communities Initiative (SACI). This conceptual study reviews key characteristics of intergovernmental transfers including grant types, features, changes in the intergovernmental fiscal environment, the fungibility/flypaper debate, and the symmetry/asymmetry response of governments to declining intergovernmental revenue. The effects of intergovernmental transfers on state and local governments are connected to differences in grant design features. Potential fallout from proposed or similar changes to grant structure is discussed using the SACI proposal as an example.