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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2004

Koji Murai, Yuji Hayashi, Noriko Nagata and Seiji Inokuchi

A human navigator attempts to handle the ship for safe navigation by judging navigational information on own ship’s condition, targets and current‐wind effects. He/she has…

Abstract

A human navigator attempts to handle the ship for safe navigation by judging navigational information on own ship’s condition, targets and current‐wind effects. He/she has the responsibility of human lives and the economic values to judge. The human navigator maintains high mental workload during the navigational watch keeping. Therefore, we need to develop a support system to reduce the mental workload with human‐system cooperation based on the navigator’s KANSEI, and we must research an index to assess the mental workload for the first step, as the research on the KANSEI of ship’s navigator is not yet available in the world. In addition we depend on the professional’s experience for the assessment. The purpose of this paper is to find characteristics of the mental workload using heart rate variability. The experiment is carried out in six types of sea area on the west side of Japan. The subject is the chief officer of a training ship at Kobe University.

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Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Sabine Sonnentag and Charlotte Fritz

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence on the relationship between stressors and catecholamines (i.e., adrenaline and noradrenaline) and cortisol. With…

Abstract

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence on the relationship between stressors and catecholamines (i.e., adrenaline and noradrenaline) and cortisol. With respect to acute stressors, both laboratory and field research have shown that the exposure to stressors leads to an increase in catecholamine and cortisol levels. With respect to more chronic stressors, research evidence is less consistent. Chronic mental workload was found to be related to elevated adrenaline levels. With respect to cortisol responses the interaction between workload and other variables seems to play a role. Empirical studies suggest that chronic stressors affect the responsivity to acute stressors. Research showed that after the exposure to stressors catecholamine and cortisol recovery is delayed.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2021

Kyoungsik Na

This study explores the effects of cognitive load on the propensity to reformulate queries during information seeking on the web.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the effects of cognitive load on the propensity to reformulate queries during information seeking on the web.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs an experimental design to analyze the effect of manipulations of cognitive load on the propensity for query reformulation between experimental and control groups. In total, three affective components that contribute to cognitive load were manipulated: mental demand, temporal demand and frustration.

Findings

A significant difference in the propensity of query reformulation behavior was found between searchers exposed to cognitive load manipulations and searchers who were not exposed. Those exposed to cognitive load manipulations made half as many search query reformulations as searchers not exposed. Furthermore, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) cognitive load scores of searchers who were exposed to the three cognitive load manipulations were higher than those of searchers who were not exposed indicating that the manipulation was effective. Query reformulation behavior did not differ across task types.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that a dual-task method and NASA-TLX assessment serve as good indicators of cognitive load. Because the findings show that cognitive load hinders a searcher's interaction with information search tools, this study provides empirical support for reducing cognitive load when designing information systems or user interfaces.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Josine van den Elsen and Brenda Vermeeren

Research findings are ambiguous regarding the effects of age on sustainable labour participation (SLP), defined as the extent to which people are able and willing to…

Abstract

Purpose

Research findings are ambiguous regarding the effects of age on sustainable labour participation (SLP), defined as the extent to which people are able and willing to conduct their current and future work. The purpose of this paper is to contribute by examining age effects on SLP by focusing on the moderating role of workload.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method study was conducted in 2018. First, a survey was distributed among a sample of 2,149 employees of the Dutch central government. Second, 12 interviews with public sector employees took place to gain greater insight into the quantitative data collected.

Findings

Three components that reflect an employee’s SLP were studied: vitality, work ability and employability. The quantitative results, in general, showed that SLP decreased with ageing. However, in contrast to the hypothesis, the results showed a significant positive relationship between age and energy. Moreover, relationships between an employee’s age and certain aspects of their SLP were moderated by workload. The interviews helped to interpret these results.

Practical implications

The findings demonstrate that some of the older worker stereotypes are unfounded, and the important practical implications of these are discussed.

Originality/value

Earlier research has produced conflicting findings regarding the relationship between age and (aspects of) SLP. By investigating several aspects of SLP in separate regressions within this research, the specific influences of age have become clearer. Furthermore, the research provides fresh insights into the relationship between age and SLP by including moderating effects of workload.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Jessica M. Badger, Samuel E. Kaminsky and Tara S. Behrend

Rich, interactive media are becoming extremely common in internet recruitment systems. The paper investigates the role of media richness in applicants’ ability to learn…

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3556

Abstract

Purpose

Rich, interactive media are becoming extremely common in internet recruitment systems. The paper investigates the role of media richness in applicants’ ability to learn information relevant to making an application decision. The authors examine these relationships in the context of two competing theories, namely media richness theory and cognitive load theory, which predict opposite relationships with information acquisition. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (n=471) either viewed a traditional web site or visited an interactive virtual world that contained information about an organization's culture, benefits, location, and job openings. Culture information was manipulated to either portray a highly teams-oriented culture or a highly individual-oriented culture.

Findings

Participants who viewed the low-richness site recalled more factual information about the organization; this effect was mediated by subjective mental workload. Richness was not related to differences in culture-related information acquisition.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that richer media (such as interactive virtual environments) may not be as effective as less rich media in conveying information. Specifically, the interactive elements may detract focus away from the information an organization wishes to portray. This may lead to wasted time on the part of applicants and organizations in the form of under- or over-qualified applications or a failure to follow instructions.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to use a cognitive load theory framework to suggest that richer media may not always achieve their desired effect.

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Behnam M. Tehrani, Jun Wang and Dennis Truax

Despite the importance of cognitive monitoring, limited studies attempted to continuously monitor cognitive status of workers regarding mental fatigue effects on fall…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the importance of cognitive monitoring, limited studies attempted to continuously monitor cognitive status of workers regarding mental fatigue effects on fall hazard. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate and understand the effects of working at height on mental fatigue development for fall hazard prevention.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative framework using two well-known methods, i.e. Wavelet Packet Decomposition and Sample entropy, is developed to analyze the captured brain signals from Electroencephalography (EEG) to quantitatively assess mental fatigue levels, and seven mental fatigue indices were obtained. Between-subjects lab experiment was designed and conducted to assess mental fatigue in Virtual Reality (VR) environment.

Findings

Both of the quantitative methods confirmed that height exposure can adversely affect subjects' vigilance levels and indicated higher levels of mental fatigue. Significant differences were found between the two tested groups (i.e. working at height or on the ground) for six out of seven indices. The results suggested that working-at-height group had higher mental fatigue levels.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is the limited number of subjects recruited for the experiment. Overall, this study is a preliminary and exploratory work towards mental fatigue monitoring and assessment in subjects exposed to fall risk.

Originality/value

This is the first study to explore and focus on mental fatigue assessment, particularly for construction falling-from-height hazard prevention by continuously monitoring mental fatigue levels of workers. The research provides insight into construction safety enhancement using smart technologies.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Paul Michael Young, Alan St Clair Gibson, Elizabeth Partington, Sarah Partington and Mark Wetherell

Incidents requiring command and control require all personnel from firefighters (FFs) to the incident commander (IC) to make continuous decisions often with limited…

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465

Abstract

Purpose

Incidents requiring command and control require all personnel from firefighters (FFs) to the incident commander (IC) to make continuous decisions often with limited information and under acute time-pressure. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the stress reactivity of specific roles during the command and control of an immersive, computer-based incident.

Design/methodology/approach

Experienced firefighting personnel undergoing incident command training participated in this study. Participants completed measures of state anxiety and stress immediately before and after taking part in a computer-based simulation of a large-scale incident run in real time. During the simulation personnel assumed one of four roles: IC, sector commander, entry control officer (ECO), and command support officer. Following the simulation personnel then completed measures of perceived workload.

Findings

No significant changes in state anxiety were observed, but levels of stress and perceived workload were related to task roles. Specifically, ICs reported the greatest levels of mental and temporal demands and stress when compared with ECOs.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the lack of environmental factors (such as rain, darkness, and noise), a relatively small sample size, and the use of self-reported questionnaires.

Practical implications

The application of immersive training environments as a method of developing FFs experience of incident command roles and skills pertinent to high-acuity, low-frequency events.

Originality/value

The paper represents one of the first attempts to identify the self-reported anxiety, stress, and perceived workload of specific role demands during the command and control of simulated incidents.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Tien-Yu Hsu and Hsin-Yi Liang

This study develops a universal game-based blended museum learning service (UGBMLS) to engage museum visitors of different ages and promote their return visits. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

This study develops a universal game-based blended museum learning service (UGBMLS) to engage museum visitors of different ages and promote their return visits. This study aims to provide a single service with flexible learning content matching the diverse needs and preferences for different ages. The contextual influences are considered to promote participatory experiences and meaningful social interactions. An experiment is conducted herein to understand how visitors of different ages experience the museum's services as well as to address the design issues in aiming to satisfy the different age groups' needs.

Design/methodology/approach

A UGBMLS, which includes a real-world adventure game system with flexible learning content and various types of learning support, was provided for different age groups. To investigate how the visitors of different ages evaluate their experiences with the UGBMLS, a mixed-method study was conducted. In total, two questionnaires were employed to examine the visitors' museum experiences and subjective measurements of cognitive load. In addition, observation and group interviews were used to explain the quantitative results.

Findings

The results show that the UGBMLS can engage diverse visitors of different ages in museum visits and promote their revisit motivations. However, there are significant differences among different age groups. The design issues in seeking to satisfy the diverse needs of different age groups are noted.

Practical implications

This study provides a feasible and cost-effective approach to support diverse visitors of different ages learning in museums.

Originality/value

This study provides an effective solution for engaging diverse visitors of different ages with a unified service. The results can be used to better understand the needs of different age groups and to effectively improve their museum experiences, thereby boosting their motivation regarding return visits. This study provides a feasible and cost-effective approach to support diverse visitors' learning in museums.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2006

Raja Parasuraman and Christopher Miller

A fundamental issue driving much of the current research is the design of the interface between humans and ROVs. Autonomous robots are sufficiently different from most…

Abstract

A fundamental issue driving much of the current research is the design of the interface between humans and ROVs. Autonomous robots are sufficiently different from most computer systems as to require new research and design principles (Adams & Skubic, 2005; Kiesler & Hinds, 2004). Previous work on coordination between humans and automated agents has revealed both benefits and costs of automation for system performance (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997). Automation is clearly essential for the operation of many complex human–machine systems. But in some circumstances automation can also lead to novel problems for operators. Automation can increase workload and training requirements, impair situation awareness and, when particular events co-occur in combination with poorly designed interfaces, lead to accidents (e.g., Degani, 2004; Parasuraman & Riley, 1997).

Details

Human Factors of Remotely Operated Vehicles
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-247-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Jos Akkermans, Veerle Brenninkmeijer, Seth N.J. van den Bossche, Roland W.B. Blonk and Wilmar B. Schaufeli

The purpose of this paper is to identify job characteristics that determine young employees' wellbeing, health, and performance, and to compare educational groups.

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1169

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify job characteristics that determine young employees' wellbeing, health, and performance, and to compare educational groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model and 2‐wave longitudinal data (n=1,284), the paper compares employees with a lower educational level with employees with a high educational level.

Findings

Young employees with lower educational level reported fewer job resources (autonomy and social support), more physical demands, less dedication, more emotional exhaustion, and poorer health and performance compared with the highly educated group. Differences were also found between educational groups in the relationships in the JD‐R model, most notably a reciprocal association between dedication and performance, and between emotional exhaustion and performance in the group with lower levels of education.

Research limitations/implications

The results support the main processes of the JD‐R model, supporting its generalizability. However, differences were found between educational groups, implying that the motivational and health impairment processes differ across educational levels.

Practical implications

HR consultants and career counselors may focus especially on increasing job resources and motivation for young employees with lower educational level. Performing well is also important for these young workers to become more dedicated and less exhausted.

Social implications

It is important to recognize and intervene on unique characteristics of different educational groups with regard to wellbeing, health, and performance in order to maintain a healthy and productive young workforce.

Originality/value

For the first time, predictions of the JD‐R model are tested among young employees with different educational backgrounds.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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