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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Mengjiao Guo, F. Sun and Zuozhu Yin

This paper used a novel technique, which is thermo-compression bonding, and Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder to form a full intermetallic compound (IMC) Cu3Sn joints (Cu/Cu3Sn/Cu…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper used a novel technique, which is thermo-compression bonding, and Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder to form a full intermetallic compound (IMC) Cu3Sn joints (Cu/Cu3Sn/Cu joints). The purpose of the study is to form high-melting-point IMC joints for high-temperature power electronics applications. The study also investigated the effect of temperature gradient on the microstructure evolution and the growth behavior of IMCs.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the thermo-compression bonding technique was used to form full Cu3Sn joints.

Findings

Experimental results indicated that full Cu/Cu3Sn/Cu solder joints with the thickness of about 5-6 µm are formed in a short time of 9.9 s and under a low pressure of 0.016 MPa at 450°C by thermo-compression bonding technique. During the bonding process, Cu6Sn5 grew with common scallop-like shape at Cu/SAC105 interfaces, which was followed by the growth of Cu3Sn with planar-like shape between Cu/Cu6Sn5 interfaces. Meanwhile, the morphology of Cu3Sn transformed from a planar-like shape to wave-like shape until full IMCs solder joints were eventually formed during thermo-compression bonding process. Asymmetrical growth behavior of the interfacial IMCs was also clearly observed at both ends of the Cu/SAC105 (Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu)/Cu solder joints. Detailed reasons for the asymmetrical growth behavior of the interfacial IMCs during thermo-compression bonding process are given. The compound of Ag element causes a reduction in Cu dissolution rate from the IMC into the solder solution at the hot end, inhibiting the growth of IMCs at the cold end.

Originality/value

This study used the thermo-compression bonding technique and Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu to form full Cu3Sn joints.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2021

F Sun, Zhen Pan, Yang Liu, Xiang Li, Haoyu Liu and Wenpeng Li

The purpose of this paper is to quickly manufacture full Cu3Sn-microporous copper composite joints for high-temperature power electronics applications and study the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quickly manufacture full Cu3Sn-microporous copper composite joints for high-temperature power electronics applications and study the microstructure evolution and the shear strength of Cu3Sn at different bonding times.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a novel structure of Cu/composite solder sheet/Cu was designed. The composite solder sheet was made of microporous copper filled with Sn. The composite joint was bonded by thermo-compression bonding under pressure of 0.6 MPa at 300°C. The microstructure evolution and the growth behavior of Cu3Sn at different bonding times were observed by electron microscope and metallographic microscope. The shear strength of the joint was measured by shear machine.

Findings

At initial bonding stage the copper atoms in the substrate and the copper atoms in the microporous copper dissolved into the liquid Sn. Then the scallop-liked Cu6Sn5 phases formed at the interface of liquid Sn/microporous copper and liquid Sn/Cu substrates. During the liquid Sn changing to Cu6Sn5 phases, Cu3Sn phases formed and grew at the interface of Cu6Sn5/Cu substrates and Cu6Sn5/microporous copper. After that the Cu3Sn phases continued to grow and the Cu3Sn-microporous copper composite joint with a thickness of 100 µm was successfully obtained. The growth rule of Cu3Sn was parabolic growth. The shear strength of the composite joints was about 155 MPa.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel full Cu3Sn-microporous copper composite joint with high shear strength for high-temperature applications based on transient liquid phase bonding. The microstructure evolution and the growth behavior of Cu3Sn in the composite joints were studied. The shear strength and the fracture mechanism of the composite joints were studied.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 September 2020

Morteza Jamshidi, Heydar Dashti NaserAbadi and Mohammadreza Oliaei

The high heat induced by fire can substantially decrease the load-bearing capacity, which is more critical in unprotected steel structures than concrete reinforced…

Abstract

Purpose

The high heat induced by fire can substantially decrease the load-bearing capacity, which is more critical in unprotected steel structures than concrete reinforced structures. One of the conventional steel structures is a steel-plate shear wall (SPSW) in which thin infill steel plates are used to resist against the lateral loads. Due to the small thickness of infill plates, high heat seems to dramatically influence the lateral load-bearing capacity of this type of structures. Therefore, this study aims to provide an investigation into the performance of SPSW with reduced beam section at high temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present paper, to examine the seismic performance of SPSW at high temperature, 48 single-span single-story steel frames equipped with steel plates with the thicknesses of 2.64 mm, 5 mm and 7 mm and yield stresses of 85 MPa, 165 MPa, 256 MPa and 300 MPa were numerically modeled. Furthermore, their behavioral indices, namely, strength, stiffness, ductility and hysteresis behavior, were studied at the temperatures of 20, 458, 642 and 917? The simulated models in the present paper are based on the experimental specimen presented by Vian and Bruneau (2004).

Findings

The obtained results revealed that the high heat harshly diminishes the seismic performance of SPSW so that the lateral strength is reduced even by 95% at substantially high temperatures. Therefore, SPSW starts losing its strength and stiffness at high temperature such that it completely loses its capacity of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation at the temperature of 917? Moreover, it was proved that by separating the percentage of their participations variations of the infill plate in SPSW, their behavior and the bare frame can be examined even at high temperatures.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the seismic performance of SPSW at different temperatures has not been evaluated and compared yet.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2022

Rio Jati Kusuma, Desty Ervira Puspaningtyas and Puspita Mardika Sari

The downstream insulin signaling, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, is an important step for skeletal glucose disposal through…

Abstract

Purpose

The downstream insulin signaling, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, is an important step for skeletal glucose disposal through the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT)-4. In addition, the master of energy regulator adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) is also involved in GLUT-4 translocation, independent from the PI3K/Akt pathway. Fermented cassava tuber or gatot is a traditional food from Indonesia with antihyperglycemic properties. However, the molecular mechanism leading to this effect is unclear. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate whether the antidiabetic activity of gatot is through PI3K/Akt dependent or AMPK pathway.

Design/methodology/approach

Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin and 230 mg/kg body weight nicotinamide. Diabetic rats were randomly allocated into four groups; negative control, positive control (metformin 100 mg/kg body weight), fermented cassava diet replacing 50% of carbohydrate (FC-50) and 100% of carbohydrate (FC-100) in the diet. Serum glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analyzed before and after four weeks of intervention. Genes expression of PI3K subunit alpha, PI3K subunit beta, PI3K regulatory subunit, Akt and AMPK were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). GLUT-4 protein expression was performed using immunohistochemistry.

Findings

There is a significant difference (p = 0.000) in serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol between groups. Skeletal AMPK gene expression was higher and significantly different between FC-100 (p = 0.006) and healthy control groups. No significant difference was observed in the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of the PI3K/Akt pathway among groups. GLUT-4 expression was highly expressed in a positive control group followed by FC-100.

Research limitations/implications

This paper did not characterize the bioactive component that is responsible for increasing mRNA expression of AMPK. This paper also did not analyze the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and AMPK that are important in activating the protein.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that showed the antidiabetic activity of traditional fermented food is through AMPK-dependent activity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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