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Article

Meng Qi and Steven John Armstrong

This paper aims to investigate the influence of cognitive style diversity on intra-group relationship conflict and individual-level organizational citizenship behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of cognitive style diversity on intra-group relationship conflict and individual-level organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The role of leader-member exchange as a moderating variable is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used hierarchical linear modeling and hierarchical regression analysis to analyze results from a sample of 344 members from 83 teams nested within 126 departments in six manufacturing organizations in the People’s Republic of China.

Findings

Results yielded general support for our hypothesized relationships between cognitive style diversity and intra-group relationship conflict. Leader-member exchange was also found to moderate the relationship between these two variables. Contrary to expectations, there were no relationships between these variables and individual-level organizational citizenship behaviors.

Originality/value

This research addresses calls from the team diversity and conflict literature to address the understudied area of deep-level cognitive diversity. Second, this study addresses previous calls for more team-level and mixed-level theory and methodology to inform OCB research. Third, this is the first study of group-level cognitive style diversity and the moderating influence of leader-member-exchange and provides valuable insights into ways of mitigating some of the negative effects of cognitive diversity on teams.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article

Chi Meng Chu, Michael Daffern, Stuart D.M. Thomas and Jia Ying Lim

Gang affiliation is strongly associated with youth crime. Although gang prevention, intervention and suppression programmes have been used to reduce affiliation and manage…

Abstract

Purpose

Gang affiliation is strongly associated with youth crime. Although gang prevention, intervention and suppression programmes have been used to reduce affiliation and manage youth gang‐related activities, the effectiveness of these approaches is questionable. Further, comprehensive programmes supporting disengagement from gangs that also address the actual criminal behaviours of gang‐affiliated youth are rare. Arguably, these are necessary if the goal of intervention is to reduce criminal behaviour and support disengagement from gangs. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study sought to elucidate the criminogenic needs of gang‐ and nongang‐affiliated youth offenders (n=165) using two commonly used risk/need assessment instruments, the structured assessment of violence risk in youth (SAVRY) and the youth level of service/case management inventory (YLS/CMI).

Findings

The results revealed that gang‐ and nongang‐affiliated youth offenders had similar criminogenic need profiles except for one difference on an item measuring peer delinquency.

Practical implications

Gang‐affiliated youth offenders have comparable criminogenic needs to other youth offenders. These needs require intervention if a reduction in crime is desired, and since gang‐affiliated youth offenders are more likely to re‐offend than those that are nongang‐affiliated, these results also suggest that there may be additional needs, beyond those assessed by the SAVRY and YLS/CMI, which should be investigated and considered in rehabilitation programmes.

Originality/value

Few studies have directly compared the risk and needs profiles between gang‐ and nongang‐affiliated youth offenders using standardised risk assessment measures; this study may be relevant to professionals working in the juvenile justice and offender rehabilitation arenas.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article

Chi Meng Chu, Michael Daffern, Stuart Thomas, Ang Yaming, Mavis Long and Kate O'Brien

Gang affiliation in youth is associated with increased criminal recidivism and an exaggeration of various criminogenic needs; affiliation also meets a variety of youth's…

Abstract

Purpose

Gang affiliation in youth is associated with increased criminal recidivism and an exaggeration of various criminogenic needs; affiliation also meets a variety of youth's personal and social needs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study of the self-reported reasons for joining and leaving gangs, as well as the difficulties faced by Singaporean youth offenders in leaving youth gangs; it also explores the relationship between gang affiliation and family connectedness, educational attainment and early exposure to gangs.

Design/methodology/approach

This prospective study involved structured interviews and administration of questionnaires with 168 youth offenders in Singapore. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the research questions.

Findings

Gang-affiliated youth cited a desire to establish and maintain friendships as their primary reasons for joining a gang. Youth who left their gang reported maturing beyond this need and the activities of their gang, particularly in light of the deleterious impact of their gang-related activities on familial relationships and employment and financial status. Early exposure to gangs through family and neighborhood influences, and poor educational engagement increased the likelihood that youth would join a gang.

Practical implications

This study highlights the need for clinicians and other service providers to better understand the universal human needs that are met through gang affiliation and the correlates of affiliation.

Originality/value

Few studies have directly examined the factors relating to gang affiliation in a non-western context; this study may be relevant to professionals working in the juvenile justice and offender rehabilitation arenas.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Content available

Abstract

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Content available

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article

Zeyi Miao

The purpose of this paper was to identify whether artificial intelligence (AI) products can possess human rights, how to define their rights and obligations and what…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to identify whether artificial intelligence (AI) products can possess human rights, how to define their rights and obligations and what ethical standards they should follow. In this study, the human rights ethical dilemma encountered in the application and development of AI technology has been focused on and analyzed in detail in the light of the existing research status of AI ethics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, first of all, the development and application of AI technology, as well as the concept and characteristics of human rights ethics, are introduced. Second, the human rights ethics of AI technology are introduced in detail, including the human rights endowment of AI machines, the fault liability of AI machines and the moral orientation of AI machines. Finally, the approaches to human rights ethics are proposed to ensure that AI technology serves human beings. Every link of its research, production and application should be strictly managed and supervised.

Findings

The results show that the research in this study can provide help for the related problems encountered in AI practice. Intelligent library integrates human rights protection organically so that readers or users can experience more intimate service in this system. It is a kind of library operation mode with more efficient and convenient characteristics, which is based on digital, networked and intelligent information science. It aims at using the greenest way and digital means to realize the reading and research of human rights protection literature in the literature analysis method.

Originality/value

Intelligent library is the future development mode of new libraries, which can realize broad interconnection and sharing. It is people-oriented and can make intelligent management and service and establish the importance of the principle of human rights protection and the specific idea of the principle. The development of science and technology brings not only convenience to people's social life but also questions to be thought. People should reduce its potential harm, so as to make AI technology continue to benefit humankind.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article

Jose Wing Pong But and John Ap

The purpose of the study is to examine the livelihood impacts, any inequalities and poverty consequences in the special administration region of Macao, following the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to examine the livelihood impacts, any inequalities and poverty consequences in the special administration region of Macao, following the liberalization of the gaming industry and the subsequent development of casino resorts.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive research design was used, which adopted the case study method to conduct this research study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to identify and gain better understanding of the impacts influencing residents’ livelihoods. Content analysis was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings identified and examined the major livelihood impacts affecting local residents, and the recommendations of local residents in addressing these impacts were provided.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study. To fully understand holistically the recent casino development and monitor the likelihood outcomes, a longitudinal study could be undertaken. The unit of analysis for this study was individual residents. Not all stakeholders representing different groups and organizations in the community were included, such as local authorities and community groups.

Originality/value

The result of this paper can provide policy-makers, planners and non-government organizations with a better view of the consequences of casino tourism development. The study will extend our knowledge of casino tourism development and enhance decision-making regarding tourism development that can deliver “real” rather than perceived benefits for all in the community.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

Content available
Article

Yitao Pan, Yuan Chen and Lin Li

The purpose of this paper is to propose a two-degrees-of-freedom wire-driven 4SPS/U rigid‒flexible parallel trunk joint mechanism based on spring, in order to improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a two-degrees-of-freedom wire-driven 4SPS/U rigid‒flexible parallel trunk joint mechanism based on spring, in order to improve the robot’s athletic ability, load capacity and rigidity, and to ensure the coordination of multi-modal motion.

Design/methodology/approach

First, based on the rotation transformation matrix and closed-loop constraint equation of the parallel trunk joint mechanism, the mathematical model of its inverse position solution is constructed. Then, the Jacobian matrix of velocity and acceleration is derived by time derivative method. On this basis, the stiffness matrix of the parallel trunk joint mechanism is derived on the basis of the principle of virtual work and combined with the deformation effect of the rope driving pair and the spring elastic restraint pair. Then, the eigenvalue distribution of the stiffness matrix and the global stiffness performance index are used as the stiffness evaluation index of the mechanism. In addition, the performance index of athletic dexterity is analyzed. Finally, the distribution map of kinematic dexterity and stiffness is drawn in the workspace by numerical simulation, and the influence of the introduced spring on the stiffness distribution of the parallel trunk joint mechanism is compared and analyzed. It is concluded that the stiffness in the specific direction of the parallel trunk joint mechanism can be improved, and the stiffness distribution can be improved by adjusting the spring elastic structure parameters of the rope-driven branch chain.

Findings

Studies have shown that the wire-driven 4SPS/U rigid‒flexible parallel trunk joint mechanism based on spring has a great kinematic dexterity, load-carrying capacity and stiffness performance.

Research limitations/implications

The soft-mixed structure is not mature, and there are few new materials for the soft-mixed mixture; the rope and the rigid structure are driven together with a large amount of friction and hindrance factors, etc.

Practical implications

It ensures that the multi-motion mode hexapod mobile robot can meet the requirement of sufficient different stiffness for different motion postures through the parallel trunk joint mechanism, and it ensures that the multi-motion mode hexapod mobile robot in multi-motion mode can meet the performance requirement of global stiffness change at different pose points of different motion postures through the parallel trunk joint mechanism.

Social implications

The trunk structure is a very critical mechanism for animals. Animals in the movement to achieve smooth climbing, overturning and other different postures, such as centipede, starfish, giant salamander and other multi-legged animals, not only rely on the unique leg mechanism, but also must have a unique trunk joint mechanism. Based on the cooperation of these two mechanisms, the animal can achieve a stable, flexible and flexible variety of motion characteristics. Therefore, the trunk joint mechanism has an important significance for the coordinated movement of the whole body of the multi-sport mode mobile robot (Huang Hu-lin, 2016).

Originality/value

In this paper, based on the idea of combining rigid parallel mechanism with wire-driven mechanism, a trunk mechanism is designed, which is composed of four spring-based wire-driven 4SPS/U rigid‒flexible parallel trunk joint mechanism in series. Its spring-based wire-driven 4SPS/U rigid‒flexible parallel trunk joint mechanism can make the multi-motion mode mobile robot have better load capacity, mobility and stiffness performance (Qi-zhi et al., 2018; Cong-hao et al., 2018), thus improving the environmental adaptability and reliability of the multi-motion mode mobile robot.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article

Maryam Khashij, Mohammad Mehralian and Zahra Goodarzvand Chegini

The purpose of this study to investigate acetaminophen (ACT) degradation efficiencies by using ozone/persulfate oxidation process in a batch reactor. In addition, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study to investigate acetaminophen (ACT) degradation efficiencies by using ozone/persulfate oxidation process in a batch reactor. In addition, the effects of various parameters on the ACT removal efficiency toward pathway inference of ACT degradation were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiments were in the 2 L glass vessels. Ozone gas with flow rate at 70 L.h−1 was produced by ozone generator. After the adjustment of the pH, various dosages of persulfate (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mmol.L−1) were then added to the 500 mL ACT-containing solution with 150 mg.L−1 of concentration. Afterward, ozone gas was diffused in glass vessels. The solution after reaction flowed into the storage tank for the detection. The investigated parameters included pH and the amount of ozone and persulfate addition. For comparison of the ACT degradation efficiency, ozone/persulfate, ozone and persulfate oxidation in reactor was carried out. The ACT concentration using a HPLC system equipped with 2998 PDA detector was determined at an absorbance of 242 nm.

Findings

ACT degradation percentage by using ozone or persulfate in the process were at 63.7% and 22.3%, respectively, whereas O3/persulfate oxidation process achieved degradation percentage at 91.4% in 30 min. Degradation efficiency of ACT was affected by different parameter like pH and addition of ozone or persulfate, and highest degradation obtained when pH and concentrations of persulfate and ozone was 10 and 3 mmol.L−1 and 60 mg.L−1, respectively. O3, OH and SO4− were evidenced to be the radicals for degradation of ACT through direct and indirect oxidation. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometer analysis showed intermediates including N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) formamide, hydroquinone, benzoic acid, 4-methylbenzene-1,2-diol, 4-aminophenol.

Practical implications

This study provided a simple and effective way for degradation of activated ACT as emerging contaminants from aqueous solution. This way was conducted to protect environment from one of the most important and abundant pharmaceutical and personal care product in aquatic environments.

Originality/value

There are two main innovations. One is that the novel process is performed successfully for pharmaceutical degradation. The other is that the optimized conditions are obtained. In addition, the effects of various parameters on the ACT removal efficiency toward pathway inference of ACT degradation were investigated.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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