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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Eugene Beaulieu and Debayan Pakrashi

Trade liberalization could either exacerbate or ameliorate the incidence of child labour. This paper aims to examine the effect of trade liberalization through membership

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Abstract

Purpose

Trade liberalization could either exacerbate or ameliorate the incidence of child labour. This paper aims to examine the effect of trade liberalization through membership in the GATT/WTO on the incidence of child labour across countries and over time. The authors examine child labour force participation data and WTO membership for 94 countries between 1980 and 1999. They find that membership in the WTO is negatively correlated with child labour. However, they do not find a statistically significant relationship between openness and child labour and therefore rule out the trade‐expanding channel of WTO membership on child labour.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' regression equations examine the effect of GATT or WTO membership on the incidence of child labour. They examine data from 94 countries from 1980 and 1999 and employ a fixed‐effects regression. They estimate different models taking different variables as control variables. They find a statistically significant effect negative of WTO membership on the incidence of child labour. They do not find a statistically significant effect of openness on child labour.

Findings

The authors find that membership in the WTO did reduce child labour. They do not find a statistically significant effect of openness on child labour.

Research limitations/implications

WTO membership does not increase the incidence of child labour as some critics claim. Membership itself is associated with reduced child labour so it may not be necessary to expand trade through international agreements in order to impact the incidence of child labour.

Practical implications

Contrary to critics of the WTO, membership does not exacerbate the problem of child labour.

Originality/value

This paper presents new data on child labour in a panel across countries over time. It is the first paper to systematically estimate the impact of international agreements on the incidence of child labour.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

MASATOSHI SAKAWA and HITOSHI YANO

This paper presents an interactive fuzzy satisfying method by assuming that the decision maker (DM) has fuzzy goals for each of the objective functions in multiobjective…

Abstract

This paper presents an interactive fuzzy satisfying method by assuming that the decision maker (DM) has fuzzy goals for each of the objective functions in multiobjective nonlinear programming problems. The fuzzy goals of the DM are quantified by eliciting the corresponding membership functions through the interaction with the DM. After determining the membership functions for each of the objective functions, in order to generate a candidate for the satisficing solution which is also a Pareto optimal, the DM selects an appropriate standing membership function and specifies his/her aspiration levels of achievement of the other membership functions, called constraint membership values. For the DM's constraint membership values, the corresponding constraint problem is solved and the DM is supplied with the Pareto optima] solution together with the trade‐off rates between a standing membership function and each of the other membership functions. Then by considering the current values of the membership functions as well as the trade‐off rates, the DM acts on this solution by updating his/her constraint membership values. In this way, the satisficing solution for the DM can be derived efficiently from among a Pareto optimal solution set by updating his/her constraint membership values. On the basis of the proposed method, a time‐sharing computer program is written and an application to regional planning is demonstrated along with the corresponding computer outputs.

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Kybernetes, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 6 January 2016

Stephanie A. Sell

In recent years, the field of comparative and international education (CIE) has experienced an outburst of self-reflective papers wherein comparativists study the nature…

Abstract

In recent years, the field of comparative and international education (CIE) has experienced an outburst of self-reflective papers wherein comparativists study the nature of the field and map its content. This study contributes to this trend by drawing attention to a previously unstudied aspect of CIE: its purpose. Using Arnove’s dimensions as a starting point to create five new purpose categories, four prominent CIE journals are surveyed to test whether the pragmatic history of CIE is evident in its current body of research. In this process, a complete and clear genetic mapping of the journals is created, which explores their similarities and differences, as well as the changes in their content over time. Findings indicate that the pragmatic purpose of CIE dominates, though it is primarily emancipatory and transformative in its prescription. Furthermore, articles rooted in specific situational contexts were more prominent than expected considering the comparative and international nature of the field.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2015
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-297-9

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Aminah Robinson Fayek and Rodolfo Lourenzutti

Construction is a highly dynamic environment with numerous interacting factors that affect construction processes and decisions. Uncertainty is inherent in most aspects of…

Abstract

Construction is a highly dynamic environment with numerous interacting factors that affect construction processes and decisions. Uncertainty is inherent in most aspects of construction engineering and management, and traditionally, it has been treated as a random phenomenon. However, there are many types of uncertainty that are not naturally modelled by probability theory, such as subjectivity, ambiguity and vagueness. Fuzzy logic provides an approach for handling such uncertainties. However, fuzzy logic alone has some limitations, including its inability to learn from data and its extensive reliance on expert knowledge. To address these limitations, fuzzy logic has been combined with other techniques to create fuzzy hybrid techniques, which have helped solve complex problems in construction. In this chapter, a background on fuzzy logic in the context of construction engineering and management applications is presented. The chapter provides an introduction to uncertainty in construction and illustrates how fuzzy logic can improve construction modelling and decision-making. The role of fuzzy logic in representing uncertainty is contrasted with that of probability theory. Introductory material is presented on key definitions, properties and methods of fuzzy logic, including the definition and representation of fuzzy sets and membership functions, basic operations on fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations and compositions, defuzzification methods, entropy for fuzzy sets, fuzzy numbers, methods for the specification of membership functions and fuzzy rule-based systems. Finally, a discussion on the need for fuzzy hybrid modelling in construction applications is presented, and future research directions are proposed.

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Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2014

Seokho Kim

Analyzing the 2004 U.S. General Social Survey and Korean General Social Survey, this chapter attempts to show that even similar climates of associationalism in two…

Abstract

Analyzing the 2004 U.S. General Social Survey and Korean General Social Survey, this chapter attempts to show that even similar climates of associationalism in two countries can lead to differential consequences for participatory democracy, depending on the associations’ capacities to foster civic resources. This chapter first examines whether the politically desirable traits of civic virtue and social trust essential to political participation can be developed by associational membership in the United States and Korea. Second, it investigates whether associational membership strengthens, weakens, or leaves unchanged the effects of socioeconomic resources measured by educational attainment and family income on political participation especially among association members in these two countries. The results indicate that voluntary associations in the United States, compared to those in Korea, do a better job of playing the role of civic educator and even of political equalizer. First, associational membership significantly and positively affects civic virtue and social trust in the United States. Second, associational membership does not affect civic virtue and social trust in Korea. Third, the effects of educational attainment and family income on political participation among members are weak in the United States. Fourth, the effects of educational attainment and family income on political participation among members are strong in Korea. Therefore, this chapter concludes that voluntary associations do not contribute to participatory equality in Korea despite its vibrant group-centered culture, whereas their American counterparts are relatively effective in bringing about the expected outcome.

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Can Tocqueville Karaoke? Global Contrasts of Citizen Participation, the Arts and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-737-5

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2005

Christopher Barnum

This paper examines social influence in collective task settings using the Berger, Fisek, Norman and Zelditch's graph-theoretic method. The work examines in-group…

Abstract

This paper examines social influence in collective task settings using the Berger, Fisek, Norman and Zelditch's graph-theoretic method. The work examines in-group membership in task settings, and models contexts where both status processes and group membership are salient. At the core of these models is a theoretical concept called a group status typification state, defined as an abstract understanding that participants hold of the type of person who would be a good source of information. This paper builds upon recent theory and research and may serve as an initial step toward integration of Status Characteristics Theory and Social Identity Theory.

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Social Identification in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-223-8

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Deana Rohlinger and Jennifer Earl

This chapter takes an empirically centered look at Communication, Information Technologies, and Media Sociology (CITAMS) as a section, both as an intellectual enterprise…

Abstract

This chapter takes an empirically centered look at Communication, Information Technologies, and Media Sociology (CITAMS) as a section, both as an intellectual enterprise and as an organizational one to make recommendations about how CITAMS could expand is intellectual vibrancy and its organizational viability and capacity in the future. The chapter consists of three sections. The first uses membership data provided by the American Sociological Association (ASA) to discuss the intellectual development of the section. Here, the authors add to well-worn histories of the section with more recent data on section memberships and shifts in co-memberships before and after the transition from Communication and Information Technologies section of the ASA (CITASA) to CITAMS. Next, the authors draw on the annual reports submitted by the section chair to the ASA to discuss the organizational trajectory of the section, assessing ups and downs in membership and finance. The authors use the annual report data to introduce several section needs and make specific recommendations on how the section might further formalize CITAMS’s governance and ensure its viability. Finally, the authors synthesize their analysis and discuss how strategic, intellectual and organizational planning for the future could help develop and secure the section’s vitality for decades to come.

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Networks, Hacking, and Media – CITA MS@30: Now and Then and Tomorrow
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-666-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Elisa Arcioni

The legal status of citizenship is constitutive in that it determines the boundaries of formal membership of a nation-state and, by implication, the lines of exclusion…

Abstract

The legal status of citizenship is constitutive in that it determines the boundaries of formal membership of a nation-state and, by implication, the lines of exclusion. The ways in which Australian law has defined membership over time – from subject status to citizen – provide a case study of the factors at play in understanding citizenship within a constitutional setting. We see that the constitution of citizenship may be a complex and unsettled evolutionary process.

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Law and the Citizen
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-028-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Xiaoyong Zheng

This paper aims to examine the relationships between the group affiliates’ dual legitimacy (membership legitimacy and societal legitimacy) and dual resource acquisition…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationships between the group affiliates’ dual legitimacy (membership legitimacy and societal legitimacy) and dual resource acquisition (intra-group and out-group), and the moderating roles of environmental uncertainty and munificence in the emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts hierarchical regression analysis to test the hypotheses based on the unique data of 251 group affiliated firms in China and applies the alternative measurements and alternative methodology of structural equation modeling into robustness check to confirm the results.

Findings

The results show as follows: the group affiliates can benefit from membership legitimacy for intra-group resource acquisition and out-group resource acquisition through the mediations of societal legitimacy and intra-group resource acquisition. However, in the linkage between affiliates’ membership legitimacy and intra-group resource acquisition and the linkage between societal legitimacy and out-group resource acquisition, environmental uncertainty plays the positive moderating roles while environmental munificence plays the negative moderating roles. Under the condition of high environmental uncertainty and low environmental munificence, the linkage between membership legitimacy and intra-group resource acquisition, and the linkage between societal legitimacy and out-group resource acquisition reach the strongest level.

Research limitations/implications

The findings highlight the importance of dual legitimacy building for group affiliates to acquire resources both inside and outside the business group when they operate in emerging economies characterized by high environmental uncertainty and low environmental munificence. However, it does not explore the contextual factors (e.g. institutional distance) affecting the relationship between the affiliate’s membership legitimacy and societal legitimacy. Then more group-level factors are expected to be included and explored with multi-level models in the future studies.

Originality/value

The findings reveal the mechanism of how group affiliates benefiting differently from dual legitimacy to acquire resources in the emerging economies, which also provide a new interpretation for the questions of who benefiting more from the group affiliation, how and why (Carney et al., 2009). This research also explores the moderating roles of task environmental characteristics (environmental uncertainty and environmental munificence) on the affiliate's dual legitimacy and dual resource acquisition, which helps understand why legitimacy building is more important in terms of resource acquisition in the emerging economy characterized by uncertainty and non-munificence.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Santanu Sarkar and Ranabir Chakraborty

We were intrigued by the question of whether the convergence of businesses across nations in search of flexibility to survive economic crisis led to a convergence of the…

Abstract

Purpose

We were intrigued by the question of whether the convergence of businesses across nations in search of flexibility to survive economic crisis led to a convergence of the annual rate of change of union membership. The question emerged because the convergence theory was controverted, especially when the neo-capitalist idea failed to withstand the test of time during the economic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

By adopting the model from Bain and Elsheik (1976) and using time-series data from 1990 to 2014 for Finland and India that survived economic crisis during this period, whereby union membership remained steady in Finland but declined in India, we assessed the empirical distinction between the changes in union membership.

Findings

We argued that when hit by an economic crisis, different nations had divergent responses and chose different means of economic recovery because of which the countries have not withstood the crisis in one specific way/direction that at all times, marginalises unions. Our main finding is that in both the countries, the annual rate of change of union membership during the years of economic recovery was determined by the policy response. And, policy responses were determined not only by the causes of economic crisis but also by the strength of unique national institutional configurations and history of the country.

Originality/value

The annual rate of change of union membership during the years of economic recovery was determined by the policy response. And, policy responses were determined not only by the causes of economic crisis but also by the strength of unique national institutional configurations and history of the country.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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