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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Maximiliano Nicolás Saraco and James Blaxland

The aim of this study was to compare the organoleptic attributes and meltability of selected, commercial dairy-free imitation cheeses (DFICs) with those of their dairy…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to compare the organoleptic attributes and meltability of selected, commercial dairy-free imitation cheeses (DFICs) with those of their dairy counterparts to thus determine whether commercial DFIC needs to be further developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Market research was conducted to determine the availability of DFICs in the United Kingdom (UK) and thus select the varieties to assess. Mild cheddar was chosen for its popularity wide availability in the United Kingdom and Italian-style hard cheese for its complex organoleptic profile. The organoleptic attributes and melting properties of the chosen DFIC products were assessed by using descriptive sensory evaluation and their meltability was assessed using the Arnott test, respectively.

Findings

109 different DFICs were found; most of them (74%) presented coconut oil as their primary ingredient. None of the assessed DFICs assessed could mimic the organoleptic attributes of their dairy counterparts accurately; however, one of the non-dairy mild cheddar samples was regarded as potentially acceptable by the assessors of the sensory evaluation assessors. Nonetheless, the meltability of this sample was significantly lower than that of mild cheddar cheese.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that, to obtain products that can mimic the organoleptic attributes and meltability of cheese more accurately, further development is required for the DFIC varieties assessed.

Originality/value

No academic publications have explored and investigated commercial DFICs with similar ingredients to those found in commercial DFICs; the commercial importance of these products may augment in the short term owing to the reported growth in the number of vegan individuals in the UK and in Europe.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Hayriye Sekban and Zekai Tarakci

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Design/methodology/approach

Six types of Golot cheeses were produced in this study. While the control sample contained no starter cultures, five different starter culture combinations (GS1: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus; GS2: S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus; GS3: S. thermophilus; GS4: S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus; and GS5: S. thermophilus, L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis) were applied to the other cheese samples using an immersion technique. Then, all cheeses were vacuum-packed and ripened at 4 ± 1°C for three months and their chemical, biochemical, sensory and textural analyses were performed on the 2nd, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days of ripening.

Findings

Results indicated that generally starter cultures have positive effects on the chemical, biochemical and sensory properties of Golot cheese. Considering the final values, the addition of starter cultures enhanced the ripening index of Golot cheeses (8.4%–9.2%), except the GS3 (7.4%), compared to the control (8.1%). At the end of the ripening period, meltability values of GS4 (16.5 mm) cultured cheeses were higher than those of other cultured cheeses (13.0–15.5 mm) and control cheese (14.5 mm). While lipolysis values were low in fresh cheese, it increased during ripening. Overall, GS3 (2.46 acid degree value [ADV]) and GS4 (2.40 ADV) had the highest lipolysis rate, while GS1 (2.14 ADV) had the lowest (p = 0.07). Electrophoretograms indicated that the highest fragmentation of α- and ß-casein occurred in GS5 (48.43%) and GS1 (44.24%), respectively. Also, GS5 was the most appreciated and preferred cheese in terms of sensory. Regarding texture, hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness and gumminess values were determined to be statistically important in terms of ripening time and cheese variety (p < 0.01).

Originality/value

Consequently, all starters had a positive impact on Golot cheese samples and among all S. thermophilus and L. helveticus starter were determined to be the most applicable one considering ripening, texture, sensory and melting properties.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Manish Kumar Chatli, Neeraj Gandhi and Parminder Singh

The sensory quality and yield of mozzarella cheese deteriorate as the fat content in milk is reduced. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of sodium alginate as a fat…

Abstract

Purpose

The sensory quality and yield of mozzarella cheese deteriorate as the fat content in milk is reduced. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of sodium alginate as a fat replacer in low-fat buffalo mozzarella cheese on the basis of processing and storage (4 ± 1°C) quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Five treatments of buffalo mozzarella cheese, viz., control full-fat cheese (6.0 per cent milk fat; CFFC), control low-fat cheese (<0.5 per cent milk fat) without sodium alginate (CLFC), low-fat cheese with 0.1 per cent sodium alginate (LFC-1), 0.2 per cent sodium alginate (LFC-2) and 0.3 per cent sodium alginate (LFC-3), were comparatively evaluated.

Findings

Increase in the level of sodium alginate increased the percent yield of treated low-fat cheese than CLFC. Addition of sodium alginate to low-fat cheese resulted in decrease in hardness (p = 0.023) and chewiness than CLFC. Meltability was significantly decreased (p = 0.03) in low-fat cheese than CFFC. It was recorded as 1.5 ± 0.14 cm for CFFC to 0.2 ± 0.08 cm in LFC-3. Sensory panellists awarded LFC-3 highest and lowest to LFC-1; however, treated products at all selected levels were superior to CLFC. Oxidative stability and microbial stability were improved in LFC-3 than CFFC during storage.

Practical implications

Results concluded that 0.3 per cent sodium alginate is optimum for the development of extended shelf-life functional/low-fat/low-calorie buffalo mozzarella cheese.

Originality/value

Processing interventions can be successfully used to develop low-fat/low-calorie mozzarella cheese with acceptable sensory attributes and longer storage life.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Moawiya A. Haddad, Sharaf S. Omar and Salvatore Parisi

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has suggested the comparison between a processed cheese and its analogous version without animal-origin raw materials. The durability should be studied at a well-defined temperature, probably agreed among the food producer and the food processor. In addition, the traceability system should consider many components and related suppliers.

Design/methodology/approach

A supply chain risk assessment analysis has been carried out with relation to two different products: an analogue cheese and a vegan cheese-like preparation. Raw materials and ingredients have been evaluated (production method and origin; geographical identification), with the aim of identifying simplified food.

Findings

An assessment of food supply networks has been carried out. In the first situation (analogue cheeses), the ingredient “cheeses” shows an important complexity: five suppliers with a related six-interconnection hub. On the other side, vegan cheeses are obtained from 11 ingredients (a challenging hub); four of them may be produced from 2–5 components of different origin (five total hubs). Tested processed cheeses are represented by means of a linear food supply network with two hubs (cheeses and “arrival” show degrees 6 and 9, respectively). Networks concerning vegan cheeses include five different hubs: four complex raw materials (degree: 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the “arrival” step (degree: 12).

Originality/value

The information load of vegan cheeses (two hubs, degrees >> average degree) appears high if compared with processed cheeses (two hubs), although the complexity of networks appears similar. Vegan cheeses may seem technologically simpler than processed cheeses and be sometimes questioned because of important traceability issues. Adequate traceability countermeasures in terms of preventive monitoring actions should be recommended when speaking of vegan cheeses. Anyway, a centralized manager would be always required.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1987

Gilbert Kuhl

Polymethacrylates are distinguished by transparency as well as by chemical and mechanical resistivity. This overview of the current status of the thermoplastic…

Abstract

Polymethacrylates are distinguished by transparency as well as by chemical and mechanical resistivity. This overview of the current status of the thermoplastic methacrylate solid resins discusses synthesis, production processes, binder characteristics, and major areas of application.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2020

Laura Burgos, Nora Pece and Silvina Maldonado

The purpose of this study was to establish the degree of ripening of natural goat cheese used as a raw material; to formulate a spreadable processed cheese with creamy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to establish the degree of ripening of natural goat cheese used as a raw material; to formulate a spreadable processed cheese with creamy consistency; and to determine the level of each process variable.

Design/methodology/approach

Cheeses of various ripening times were selected for the formulation through cluster analysis. The effect of the final moisture was studied using the same proportion of fresh and ripened cheeses in the formulation, and three melting temperatures were tested.

Findings

Goat cheeses ripened for 10, 20 and 40 days were chosen for the formulation of spreadable processed cheese. Final moisture content of 63.0 ± 0.1 per cent was selected (p = 0.0008). Melting temperature at 85.0 ± 0.1°C for 9.0 ± 0.5 min was suitable to homogenize the cheese mass (p = 0.001). The level of variables was validated by changing the proportions of natural goat cheeses selected. Four formulations were obtained with a consistency similar to that of the commercial reference.

Practical implications

Processed cheese is produced by blending shredded natural cheeses of different types and degrees of ripening. The use of ripening goat cheeses as a raw material in processed cheeses contributes to the added value of the local goat milk chain. Goat cheeses have an acid and slightly salty taste and medium to long persistence.

Originality/value

The results of this work can be used by processed cheese manufacturers to better understand the impact of goat cheese ripening on processed cheese quality. The industry can also use these results to introduce the product onto the market and plan their marketing campaign.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

J.C. Bogue, C.M. Delahunty, M.K. Henry and J.M. Murray

The formulation and marketing of new food products are very complex and there are many interacting influences on consumer acceptance, e.g. the person, the food product and…

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Abstract

The formulation and marketing of new food products are very complex and there are many interacting influences on consumer acceptance, e.g. the person, the food product and the environment. Market analysis and sensory analysis were used to determine consumer preferences for Cheddar‐type cheeses. Consumers’ attitudes, perceptions and purchase behaviour were investigated by means of a structured questionnaire. Eight Cheddar‐type cheeses were objectively assessed by a trained panel using descriptive sensory profiling, and, in parallel, were hedonically rated by 100 “naïve” consumers. Preference mapping was used to illustrate the subjective sensory data before the “naïve” consumers were segmented into homogeneous groups using hierarchical cluster analysis. Five focus groups, representing different socio‐economic categories, investigated in‐depth influences on preferences and purchase behaviour. Cheddar‐type cheese was the most frequently purchased and preferred cheese, and taste was the most important attribute influencing the purchase decision. Consumers preferred a premium cheese described as “creamy” and “mouthcoating” and least liked a reduced‐fat cheese described as “rancid” and “rubbery”. The focus groups helped explain issues that arose in both the questionnaire and sensory analysis. This study showed that a combination of market and sensory analysis gave a more valuable explanation of consumer acceptance of Cheddar‐type cheese than either method could on its own. However, relationships were determined by observation rather than mathematically and therefore this integration must be further developed in order to build a predictive model for this product.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 101 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Ting‐Jin Lim, Azhar‐Mat Easa, Abdul‐Alias Karim, Rajeev Bhat and Min‐Tze Liong

The aim of this study is to develop a soy‐based cream cheese (SCC) with textural characteristics comparable to that of commercial dairy cream cheese (DCC) via the addition…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to develop a soy‐based cream cheese (SCC) with textural characteristics comparable to that of commercial dairy cream cheese (DCC) via the addition of microbial transglutaminase (MTG), soy protein isolate (SPI) and maltodextrin (MD).

Design/methodology/approach

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed in this study to determine the effects of MTG, MD and SPI on firmness of SCC.

Findings

The second‐order model generated via RSM was significant with only a 9.76 per cent variation not explained by the model. The coefficient of regression revealed that MTG, MD and SPI showed significant linear effects (P<0.0001) on the firmness of SCC, while MTG and SPI showed significant quadratic effects. The model successfully predicted and developed a SCC model with similar firmness as that of DCC; via the combination of 2.57 per cent (w/w) of MTG, 19.69 per cent (w/w) of SPI and 19.69 per cent (w/w) of MD. Physicochemical analyses revealed that SCC possessed lower fat content, reduced saturated fatty acid and zero trans fat. Further rheological measurements revealed that SCC was more solid‐like at room temperature, but less elastic at refrigerated temperature compared to DCC. SEM and SDS‐PAGE analyses affirmed that the textural changes of SCC were attributed to MTG‐induced cross‐linking.

Originality/value

The research demonstrated that a non‐dairy cream cheese could be developed using soy. In addition, the SCC also contained better nutritional properties compared to its dairy counterpart.

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