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– The purpose of this paper was to understand the experience of those living with the Imprisonment for Public Protection (IPP) sentence.
The purpose of this paper was to understand the experience of those living with the Imprisonment for Public Protection (IPP) sentence.
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse seven interviews with Young Offenders aged 18-21 who were serving an IPP sentence. Two participants were past their tariff expiry date, two had less than a year until their tariff date and three had more than a year until their tariff date.
Several themes were found, each with their own subthemes: Injustice of the Justice System, Not Knowing, Coping, Change and Walking on Eggshells. Participants still detailed negative aspects of the sentence but within this was one, important, positive aspect, namely the inspiration the sentence gave for them to change their offending behaviour. However, this has come at a cost with participants feeling as though they have been treated unfairly, finding it difficult to cope, feeling victimised and finding it difficult to see a future.
Lapses in motivation do not necessarily reflect the risk of the person but the difficulty of the sentence. Motivation can be fostered and developed through motivational interviewing, praise and peer support IPPs should be given more credit for the way they manage themselves daily and more understanding when they struggle. IPPs could be victimised by determinate prisoners or by staff. Establishments should be aware of this and help IPPs resolve situations without feeling like they are a victim. Consideration should be given to converting IPP sentences to determinate sentences.
Previous research focused on the negative aspects of the sentence, the purpose was therefore to approach the situation with an open mind and by using a method that allows those with an IPP sentence to share their experience of the sentence. IPA allowed for exploration of the effects of the sentence on those serving it and therefore gains a further understanding of the impact of the sentence.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the views of young adult prisoners with emerging personality disorders (PDs), who were assessed as posing a high risk of…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the views of young adult prisoners with emerging personality disorders (PDs), who were assessed as posing a high risk of causing serious harm to others, on the process of therapeutic change in a non-residential treatment service in a UK young offender institute. The treatment model utilises an integrated approach, specifically adapted for the developmental needs of young adults and combining therapies for PD with offence focussed interventions and regular keywork.
In total, 13 participants, who had completed at least one year of therapy, were interviewed about their perspectives about what, if any, change had occurred and how any reported change had taken place. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed via thematic analysis.
All participants described having made positive therapeutic change. Three overarching change themes were identified: mentalisation of others, self-knowledge and adaptive coping. Relationships with staff were described as the key mechanism through which change was achieved. Specific treatment interventions were mentioned infrequently, although keywork and generic individual therapy and groupwork sessions were also described as drivers to change.
The findings suggest the possibility of positive therapeutic outcomes for this complex service user group. They also suggest that the domains of change and associated mechanisms may be similar to those reported for other service user groups and in other settings.