Search results

1 – 10 of 144
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Md. Anwarul Abedin, Umma Habiba and Rajib Shaw

The Indus, Mekong, and Ganges River deltas, which have created one of the world’s largest delta and submarine fan system, currently contribute a major fraction of…

Abstract

The Indus, Mekong, and Ganges River deltas, which have created one of the world’s largest delta and submarine fan system, currently contribute a major fraction of freshwater to East and South Asia. All these deltas are those regions in the world that face major challenges in their water sector due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, sea-level rise, and salinity intrusion into inland and water bodies, all aggravated by climate change. Among them, salinity intrusion is currently one of the key issues that directly and indirectly cause water insecurity in East and South Asia, which ultimately hamper livelihood, agricultural production, and social interference. Hence, this chapter gives a comprehensive description on the nature and extent of the salinity problem, its adverse effects on livelihood and water sector, and then the focus goes to current and future sustainable water resource management within the delta to finally move on to conclusion and suggestions.

Details

Water Insecurity: A Social Dilemma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-882-2

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Kien Nguyen-Trung

In late 2015, the El Nĩno phenomenon induced Vietnam’s worst drought in 60 years, which lasted until mid-2016 and intensified the most expansive saline intrusion in 90…

Abstract

In late 2015, the El Nĩno phenomenon induced Vietnam’s worst drought in 60 years, which lasted until mid-2016 and intensified the most expansive saline intrusion in 90 years. The combination of the two hazards resulted in a large-scale disaster, which has led 18 provinces of Vietnam, most of them from the Mekong Delta, to water shortage, insanitation, human and animal diseases, food emergency need and a considerable disruption in local communities’ livelihoods. These devastating effects raise the question of what makes local households vulnerable to drought and saline intrusion. The chapter argues that vulnerability to the natural disaster is not something resulted from external threats, but rather, is derived from the interplay between social structures residing deeply inside the socio-economic systems and agency’s conditions presenting at the household level. Social structures are rules and procedures that constrain and/or enable human actions in agricultural production, risk taking and adaptation. Agency refers to the capacities of disaster-affected households in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta who cultivated third rice crop and suffered heavily from the 2015–2016 disaster. In addition to households’ lack of planning and coping capacities, the constitution of vulnerability to drought and saline intrusion can be attributed to the interaction between farmers’ choice of extra rice crops and the state’s policies and directions in agricultural and irrigation development since 1990s to date.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Expert briefing
Publication date: 15 January 2021

The Mekong flows through China and the five mainland South-east Asian states -- Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Earlier this month, China belatedly informed…

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Sang Thanh Le and Chi Dao Vo

This paper aims to provide a deep understanding of rural household livelihoods in the Mekong Delta and to explore how they can cope with climate stressors at the ground level.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a deep understanding of rural household livelihoods in the Mekong Delta and to explore how they can cope with climate stressors at the ground level.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs the sustainable livelihood framework at a household and also an individual scale. The general data obtained from a survey of 2,100 households provide an overview of their livelihoods. Qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted, as case studies, to comprehensively assess 100 households in one commune affected by annual floods and an additional 100 households in another commune affected by sea level rises. Livelihood profile analysis is beneficial to identify specific livelihood change patterns that have taken place in these specific cases.

Findings

There are four types of livelihood adaptation to climate stressors: (1) change of structure of agricultural systems, (2) change of employment locations, (3) resettlement with strong impact on livelihoods and (4) out-migration. The household livelihood resources and the local economic structures have significant roles in driving adaptive solutions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides detailed profiles of the livelihood change considered as passive adaptation of smallholders in the Mekong Delta.

Originality/value

It contributes to the knowledge of rural households in multiple aspects with regard to how they cope with climate change via reflection on their livelihoods.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Huy Duc Dang

Agricultural systems in Mekong Delta have transformed to cope with climate change. Various researches pointed out that integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural systems in Mekong Delta have transformed to cope with climate change. Various researches pointed out that integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems (i.e., rice-shrimp, rice-fish…) emerged as potential climate adaptive practices. However, limited studies are attempting to assess the sustainability of these agricultural practices. Therefore, it is essential to assess whether or not these systems will be sustainable in the context of climate change and what can be done to make it sustainable. The present study conducted the sustainability assessment of the rice-shrimp system to identify potential areas for improvement as well as policy implication to increase resilience and adaptation of coastal IAA system which could contribute to the understanding of other coastal agricultural deltas around the globe.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quantitative approach including the assessment protocol of van Asselt et al. (2014), the assessment framework of Vanloon et al. (2005), and the MCA methodology to flexibly and holistically assess the sustainability level of agricultural systems.

Findings

Results concluded that rice-shrimp systems have the potential to improve livelihood, food security, and adaptation of coastal farmers. Major improvements should be considered for productivity, efficiency, and equity themes, while minor improvements can be made for stability, durability, and compatibility themes.

Originality/value

This research could be used as a guideline for sustainability assessment in a context-specific case study of IAA, which showed a potential for the application of other climate-smart IAAs in similar contexts around the globe.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Loan T. Le

This study aims to investigate the adoption of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) technique and provides the economic evaluation and determinants of AWD adoption in rice…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the adoption of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) technique and provides the economic evaluation and determinants of AWD adoption in rice production in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

The study extends the drainage factor into the AWD score. The cost benefit analysis is utilized for the economic evaluation, and the Cragg model is applied to examine the determinants of AWD adoption.

Findings

The results indicate that there are significant differences in inputs such as water, seed, fertilizers and mechanization between the low and high levels of AWD adoption. The yields are significantly different at different adoption levels. The Cragg model found that irrigation infrastructure, AWD training and perceived ease of use of the technology are determinants of AWD adoption level. Collective pumping is considered as a major constraint in the AWD adoption.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide managerial implications, with a focus on the effectiveness of inputs, the irrigation infrastructure and AWD training to promote the AWD adoption. Challenges of rice field flatness should be investigated in a further study.

Originality/value

The study contributes to existing literature by providing an empirical evidence for the large-scale adoption of AWD with a comprehensive economic evaluation, extending the drainage performance into the score to accurately reflect the water conservation and promoting the use of a more flexible modeling approach with the Cragg model.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Savuti Henningsen, Natasha Pauli and Chanchhaya Chhom

The effects of environmental change are becoming more noticeable in the Lower Mekong Basin, where there is growing pressure on the agriculture-based livelihoods of…

Abstract

The effects of environmental change are becoming more noticeable in the Lower Mekong Basin, where there is growing pressure on the agriculture-based livelihoods of communities living along the mainstream of the Mekong River. This chapter presents an investigation of temporal seasonal variability in four communities of Kratie Province, Cambodia, including identification of locally developed strategies to adapt to temporal changes in weather patterns. A mixed-methods approach was adopted, combining historical hydrometeorological data with participatory seasonal calendars and daily routine diaries. Seasonal calendars were compiled from nine workshops across four villages in Kratie Province, and daily diaries were collected from seven individuals across three villages. The results indicate that patterns in rainfall, flooding and drought have become more variable due to the impacts of environmental change; a phenomenon that will likely continue into the future. Without effective, locally appropriate adaptation measures, changing weather patterns will likely continue to have adverse impacts on communities in the region due to their reliance on reliable seasonal rainfall and flooding events for crop cultivation. Households and communities in the study region have already developed a number of approaches to mitigate the adverse impacts of environmental change. This research also reiterated the importance of incorporating both local knowledge and scientific data to gain the most accurate understanding of the impacts of environmental change in a given region.

Details

Climate-Induced Disasters in the Asia-Pacific Region: Response, Recovery, Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-987-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Khoi Kim Dang, Thiep Huy Do, Thi Ha Lien Le, Thi Thu Hang Le and Thinh Duc Pham

The Vietnamese Mekong River Delta (VMD) is one of the most affected deltas by climate change in the world. Several studies have investigated factors influencing farmers'…

Abstract

Purpose

The Vietnamese Mekong River Delta (VMD) is one of the most affected deltas by climate change in the world. Several studies have investigated factors influencing farmers' climate change adaptation behaviors in the region; however, little is known about the effectiveness of such measures. This paper examines the determinants of adaptation strategies among VMD rice farmers and assesses the impacts of such practices on rice yield.

Design/methodology/approach

Endogenous switching regressions were employed using a survey data of 300 rice-producing households in An Giang and Tra Vinh provinces in 2016.

Findings

The results show that farmers receiving early disaster warnings are more likely to adopt adaptation measures to climate change. If nonadaptors had chosen to respond, their rice yield would have increased by 0.932 tons/ha/season.

Research limitations/implications

The data sample is small and collected from two provinces in the VMD only; therefore, the results may be specific for the study sites. However, future research can adopt the proposed method for other regions.

Originality/value

The study estimates the production impacts of farmers' decisions on whether or not to adapt to extreme climate events. The proposed approach allows for capturing both observed and unobserved behaviors.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Cao Van Hon and Le Khuong Ninh

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of credit rationing on the amount of capital allocated to inputs used by rice farmers in the Mekong River Delta (MRD).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of credit rationing on the amount of capital allocated to inputs used by rice farmers in the Mekong River Delta (MRD).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature review, the authors propose nine hypotheses on the determinants of access of rice farmers to credit and four hypotheses on the impact of credit rationing on the amount of capital allocated to inputs used by rice farmers in the MRD. Data were collected from 1,168 farmer households randomly selected out of 10 provinces (city) in the MRD.

Findings

Step 1 of propensity score matching (PSM) with probit regression shows that land value, income, education, gender of household head and geographical distance to the nearest credit institution affect the degree of credit rationing facing rice farmers. Step 2 of PSM estimator identifies that the amount of capital allocated to inputs such as fertilizer and hired labour increases when credit rationing decreases while that allocated to seed and pesticide is not influenced by credit rationing because rice farmers use these inputs adamantly regardless of effectiveness.

Originality/value

This paper sheds light on the impact of credit rationing on the amount of capital allocated to inputs used by rice farmers, which is largely different from the main focus of the extant literature just on the determinants of credit rationing facing farmers in general and rice farmers in particular.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Seung Kyu LEE and Truong An Dang

This study aims to investigate aspects related to the changing trends of the rainfall extremes in the entire Mekong Delta in the period of 32 years (1984-2015) applying…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate aspects related to the changing trends of the rainfall extremes in the entire Mekong Delta in the period of 32 years (1984-2015) applying rainfall extreme indices. First, the homogeneity tests were applied to assess the quality of observed rainfall data series. The authors, then, investigated three rainfall indices including the number of very heavy rainfall days 20 mm (R20), number of days above 50 mm (R50) and number of days above 100 mm (R100) applying the Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimate.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the homogeneity tests were applied to assess the quality of observed rainfall data series. The authors, then, investigated three rainfall indices including the number of very heavy rainfall days 20 mm (R20), number of days above 50 mm (R50) and number of days above 100 mm (R100) applying the Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimate.

Findings

The results of R20 pointed out that an insignificant upward tendency was found in the coastal provinces, whereas an insignificant downward tendency was also recorded in the inland provinces. Regarding the number of R50, a similar trend to R20 was recorded with five stations slightly increased and five stations slightly decreased. For the number of R100, the results recorded an absence of significant trends over the entire study area. Approximately 58.5% of stations show a slightly decreasing trend, while 41.5% of the remaining stations recorded a slightly increasing trend.

Originality/value

For the number of R100, the results recorded an absence of the significant trends over the entire study area. Approximately 58.5% of stations show a slightly decreasing trend, while 41.5% of the remaining stations recorded a slightly increasing trend. Of note is the fact that the number of R100 occurred more frequently in the northern provinces, which means the northern region is facing a high risk of flooding.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

1 – 10 of 144