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Article

Meiling Dong, Xiufang Cui, Guo Jin, Haidou Wang, Lina Zhu and Jinna Liu

The aim of the present paper is to investigate the mechanical performance of multi-layer films. With the wide application of optic and electronic thin-films, membrane…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present paper is to investigate the mechanical performance of multi-layer films. With the wide application of optic and electronic thin-films, membrane materials and membrane technology have become one of the most active fields of research in contemporary materials science (Dumont et al., 1997). Multi-layer films have evolved as candidates for these applications because of their unique properties. TiN and Ti/TiN multi-layer films were fabricated using the DC magnetron sputtering method. A nano-indentation tester and electronic film distribution tester were utilized to evaluate the mechanical properties and residual stress of the films. The existence of interface effects on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the films were analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the Ti/TiN multi-layer films were fabricated using the DC magnetron sputtering method. The films were deposited on polished 45# steels. Ti was used as the sputtering target. Ar and N2 were applied as working and reactive gases, respectively. Surface morphology was measured using transmission electron microscopy. The composition was analyzed using D8 X-ray diffraction. Nano-indentation tests were performed using Nanoindenter G200 with a Berkovich indenter. A BGS 6341 electronic film stress distribution tester was used to measure the distribution of stress in the films.

Findings

The film surface was very smooth and the structure was very dense. The elastic modulus and micro-hardness of Ti/TiN multi-layer films were smaller, compared to those of the TiN film. Furthermore, both of these parameters initially decreased and later increased, with a decrease in the modulation period. The residual stress in the film was compressive. The corrosion resistance properties of TiN films were the best in NaCl solution, less so in alkaline solution and worst in acid solution. For the Ti/TiN multi-layer films tested in an acid medium, the corrosion resistance performance was better when the modulation period was decreased to micron grade under exposure conditions at ambient temperature.

Originality/value

In the present paper, the Ti/TiN multi-layer films were fabricated using PVD with different variations, and the influence on the performance of Ti/TiN multi-layer films due to each single layer period of TiN was studied. The findings should provide useful guidelines for the preparation of high quality Ti/TiN multi-layer thin films.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Dong‐Mo Koo

This study examines how various characteristics of the discount retail environment and the overall attitude towards a discount retail store, considered to be an abstract…

Abstract

This study examines how various characteristics of the discount retail environment and the overall attitude towards a discount retail store, considered to be an abstract and global image component, influence consumers’ satisfaction and how consumers’ satisfaction, in turn, affects store loyalty. The data, collected from a sample of 517 discount retail customers in Daegu, Korea, indicate that: (1) forming the overall attitude is more closely related to in‐store services: atmosphere, employee service, after sales service and merchandising, (2) store satisfaction is formed through perceived store atmosphere and value, (3) the overall attitude has strong influence on satisfaction and loyalty and its impact is much stronger on loyalty than on satisfaction, (4) store loyalty is directly affected by most significantly location, merchandising and after sale service in order, (5) satisfaction is not related to customers’ committed store revisiting behavior. The applications in management and implications for future research are discussed.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

Xiao Jia, Jin Chen, Liang Mei and Qian Wu

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following two questions: What are the influences of the top managers’ different leadership styles on organizational innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following two questions: What are the influences of the top managers’ different leadership styles on organizational innovation? What is the mechanism by which the different leaderships exert different effects on organizational innovation?

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypothesized model, a data set based on 133 MBA part-time students from Tsinghua University and Zhejiang University in China was built, after interviewing several top managers as a pilot study. With the help of SPSS macro, hierarchical regression and bootstrapping analysis, the paper analyzes the effects of two leadership styles on innovation performance, through the mediation mechanism of openness involving open breadth and open depth.

Findings

The results indicate that transformational leadership enhances, while transactional leadership reduces, the organizational innovation performance. The openness breadth and openness depth not only mediate the beneficial effect of transformational leadership on innovation, but also mediate the deleterious effect of transactional leadership on innovation.

Originality/value

This study empirically explores the different functions of transformational leadership and transactional leadership for leading organizational innovation performance. Furthermore, a new form of organization is an open design or strategy that allows more external knowledge and resources to be absorbed, which is claimed as a new paradigm for organization innovation. This study integrates the concepts of breadth of openness and depth of openness on the basis of open innovation literature, as an intermediate mechanism to explain the different effects of the two forms of top managers’ leadership.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Mei-Ling Wu and Jia-Shen Lan

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in solder joint stress when subjected to mechanical bending. The analytical theory pertaining to the stresses in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in solder joint stress when subjected to mechanical bending. The analytical theory pertaining to the stresses in the solder joint between the components (including the molding compound, the chip and the substrate) was described, and the printed circuit board (PCB) with a discontinuity function when the PCB assembly is subjected to mechanical bending was developed. Thus, the findings reported here may lead to a better understanding of the solder joint failure based on the Physics of Failure model.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the analytical model for calculating the stress in solder joints, as well as presents a simulation model that can be used for calculating the strain energy density of solder joint. First, the multilayer plate theory is used in discussing the composite material for the component, including the molding compound, the silicon chip and the substrate, or the PCB, including the copper layers, the fiber and the epoxy. Finally, the complete structure of the analytical model developed as a part of this current work is presented.

Findings

For the analytical model of multilayer structures in which the interconnection layer is discrete, mechanical bending has been modeled with respect to varying silicon chip length. The analytical model that describes the stress of the outermost solder joint experiences is chosen, as this is the typical solder joint failure. The analytical model can be applied to discrete solder joints, which are evaluated by calculating the matrix form. Owing to its use of the matrix equation, the analytical model can be highly combinatorial and thus more capable of calculating the solution.

Research limitations/implications

The analytical solution based on a simple concept was presented and validated using the finite element model for the stress experienced by solder joints subjected to mechanical bending. To verify that the simulation represents a real PCB case, the authors use the finite element method (FEM) to compare their case with the multilayer plate theory. Owing to the good agreement between the theory and simulation results, the authors conclude that the multilayer plate theory can be correctly applied in multilayer PCB and be used in an analytical model for the PCB assembly subjected to mechanical bending.

Practical implications

Owing to the good agreement between the theory and simulation results, the authors conclude that the multilayer plate theory can be correctly applied in multilayer PCB and be used in an analytical model for the PCB assembly subjected to mechanical bending.

Social implications

The analytical model is validated with the FEM model and provides the way to physically examine the solder joint failure mechanism. In this paper, the analytical model is developed as a means to assess the solder joint stress subjected to mechanical bending.

Originality/value

The analytical model treats the solder joint as discrete and has been successfully validated against the finite element model. The complete structure model (the second analytical model) is presented to discuss the effects of varying silicon chip length on the normal stress in solder joints. When the silicon chip length exceeds to 80 per cent of the total package length, the stress of the outermost solder joint increases rapidly. The design analysis findings have suggested that the failure of the outermost solder joint subjected to mechanical bending on the PCB assembly can be reduced by analyzing the analytical model.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article

Naoki Ando and Dong Kee Rhee

The primary purpose of this study is to explore the antecedents of interorganizational trust within an international joint venture (IJV) context. In exploring how…

Abstract

The primary purpose of this study is to explore the antecedents of interorganizational trust within an international joint venture (IJV) context. In exploring how interorganizational trust is developed during the course of managing IJVs, we will look at fair action as a key factor in building interorganizational trust. Based on the existing literature, we propose the fair joint decision‐making process, cultural adaptation and the fair distribution of bargaining power as being antecedents of interorganizational trust within the IJV context. After developing hypotheses about the relationships between these three antecedents and interorganizational trust as well as causal relations between the antecedents, an empirical study is conducted using a sample comprised of 109 IJVs located in Korea. The findings show that perceived fairness in the joint decision‐making process and the distribution of bargaining power directly affects trust‐building between IJV participants; and also reveal the indirect effects of cultural adaptation on the development of interorganizational trust.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article

Marwa Dabaieh, Nargessadat Emami, Jukka Taneli Heinonen and Björn Marteinsson

Over the last eight years, the Middle East has experienced a series of high profile conflicts which have resulted in over 5.6 million Syrians forced to migrate to…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the last eight years, the Middle East has experienced a series of high profile conflicts which have resulted in over 5.6 million Syrians forced to migrate to neighbouring countries within the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region or to Europe. That have exerted huge pressure on hosting countries trying to accommodate refugees in decent shelters and in quick manner. Temporary shelters normally carry a high environmental burden due to their short lifespan, and the majority are fabricated from industrialised materials. This study assesses the carbon impact for a minus carbon experimental refugee house in Sweden using life cycle assessment (LCA) as tool. SimaPro and GaBi software were used for the calculations and the ReCiPe midpoint method for impact assessment. The results show that using local plant-based materials such as straw, reeds and wood, together with clay dug from close to the construction site, can drastically reduce the carbon footprint of temporary shelters and even attain a negative carbon impact of 226.2 kg CO2 eq/m2. Based on the results of the uncertainty importance analysis, the overall global warming potential impact without and with sequestration potential are mostly sensitive to the variability of the GWP impact of wood fibre insulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is designed to calculate the GWP impact of the refugee house over its entire life cycle (production, operation and maintenance and end of life). Then, the sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the impact of input uncertainties (selection of material from the database and the method) on the total GWP impact of the refugee house with and without sequestration. The ISO standards (International Standard 14040 2006; International Standard 14044 2006) divide the LCA framework into four steps of Goal and scope, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation.

Findings

This study has shown an example for proof of concept for a low impact refugee house prototype using straw, reeds, clay, lime and wood as the principle raw materials for building construction. Using natural materials, especially plant-based fibres, as the main construction materials, proved to achieve a minus carbon outcome over the life cycle of the building. The GWP of the shelter house without and with sequestration are found to be 254.7 kg CO2 eq/m2 and -226.2 kg CO2 eq/m2, respectively.

Originality/value

As there are still very few studies concerned with the environmental impact of temporary refugee housing, this study contributes to the pool of knowledge by introducing a complete LCA calculation for a physical house prototype as a proof of concept on how using low impact raw materials for construction combined with passive solutions for heating and cooling can reach a minus carbon outcome. The GWP of the shelter house without and with sequestration are found to be 254.7 kg CO2 eq/m2 and -226.2 kg CO2 eq/m2.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article

Bartosz Górecki and Jacek Szumbarski

Both the importance of the natural convection in science and engineering and the shortage of publications in the field of numerical features of time-stepping schemes for…

Abstract

Purpose

Both the importance of the natural convection in science and engineering and the shortage of publications in the field of numerical features of time-stepping schemes for the simulation of coupled heat and fluid flow problems motivate the present work. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents the unconditionally stable time-stepping scheme for simulation of coupled problems of mass and heat transport. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part concerns the mathematical formulation of the scheme and discusses its implementation. The second part focuses on the numerical simulation and its results. A detailed investigation of the temporal order of the scheme with respect to the L2-norms of the errors of the pressure, velocity, temperature and divergence of velocity fields has also been given.

Findings

The work shows that it is possible to formulate a numerical scheme which is unconditionally stable with respect to the time step size. Moreover, application of the spectral element method for the spatial discretization results in a high order of approximation in space and very good overall accuracy. Furthermore, the investigation of the numerical features of the scheme showed that the formal temporal order of the scheme (formally second order) has been deferred very slightly and the order of 1.8-1.9 is achieved for all unknown fields.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new unconditionally stable scheme for simulation of unsteady flows with bidirectional coupling of heat transfer and the fluid flow. It also carefully investigates the numerical behaviour of the method.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article

Hyun Jeong Min

During the 1920s and 1930s in the colonial city of Seoul, a group of women called the New Women and the Modern Girls expressed their modern identities by wearing different…

Abstract

Purpose

During the 1920s and 1930s in the colonial city of Seoul, a group of women called the New Women and the Modern Girls expressed their modern identities by wearing different clothing, hairstyles and make-up; visiting cafés; viewing Western movies; and consuming other foreign merchandise. While these women were admired by many women as being pioneers of modernity, they were severely criticized by others under the pretext that they indulged their vanity without considering the economy of their families and their colonized nation. These criticisms continue in twenty-first century Korea. Based on the striking similarity between the two eras, an understanding of the consumption and the criticisms of the Modern Girls could provide a historical context for understanding women's experiences in the consumer culture of twenty-first century Korea. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

As secondary sources, literature published in both English and Korean was included. Primary data were obtained from articles in Korean newspapers, magazines and print advertisements from the 1920s and 1930s.

Findings

The New Women and Modern Girls expressed their modern identities by consuming various fashion goods, including Western-style clothes, make-up and various accessories, adopting Western hairstyles and frequenting modern cafés, theaters and department stores. However, their behaviors escaped the boundaries of the “wise mother, good wife” ideology, and they were severely criticized by those adhering to the neo-Confucianism and Korean nationalist ideology that was deeply rooted in Korean society. Thus, the reputations of the Modern Girls were tainted and the individuals were stigmatized.

Originality/value

This research illuminates the negative aspects of self-expressive consumption, showing how individualistic, identity-driven consumption can be stigmatized in the collectivistic culture of Korea that is rooted in neo-Confucian nationalism.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article

Joon-Seo Andrew Choi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the marketing journey of a professional baseball team in South Korea (the SK Wyverns), from the conception of a new “green”…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the marketing journey of a professional baseball team in South Korea (the SK Wyverns), from the conception of a new “green” campaign to the resulting environmental, social and economic gains of the local community and of Korean baseball in general.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigator interviewed 12 constituents of the SK’s green marketing campaign, participated as an observer at seven separate field trips to the SK stadium and meetings, and collected and analyzed corporate documentation and physical artifacts. The role of the researcher as an advisor to the Wyvern’s green marketing initiative from the onset provided rare access to these multiple and different sources of evidence, which helped to establish the trustworthiness of the results (Yin, 2003).

Findings

By taking unconventional steps to find new funding opportunities, the team managed to achieve a triple benefit-of environmental, social and economic gains from green marketing. In the big picture, one will recognize that the SK Wyverns’ story is less about the opportune timing of its funding strategy, and more about its capacity for innovative thinking to address the big issue of meeting up-front costs.

Originality/value

The significance of the SK Wyverns’ green marketing program is that it shows how even a team in a non-major baseball market like South Korea can accept a big challenge and deliver the desired results by solving the cost issue in a proactive, creative way. The hope is that other sport franchises around Asia, in other regions faced with growing environmental concerns, may regard this case as a benchmark and find inspiration for their own creative solutions in going green.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Junhee Seok, Youseok Lee and Byung-Do Kim

This study clarifies the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) news reports and firm value and identifies the mechanisms that constitute this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study clarifies the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) news reports and firm value and identifies the mechanisms that constitute this relationship. Specifically, it identifies the roles of word of mouth (WOM) and traditional advertising in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The data set used for the analysis covers 77 firms in Korea from 2012 to 2015. The random-effects model is applied to verify three hypotheses. Using a three-step regression analysis and the Sobel test, this study reveals the roles of WOM and advertising expenditure in the relationship between CSR news reports and firm value.

Findings

CSR news reports positively affect firm value, and this relationship is mediated by WOM and moderated by advertising expenditure. Notably, the positive effect of WOM on firm value is stronger for companies that spend less on advertising.

Practical implications

The evidence implies that marketing managers could benefit from not only conducting CSR activities but also widely publicizing them. CSR news reports could help companies enhance public awareness of and interest in them.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the influence of CSR news reports using empirical data in Korea.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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