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Haiying Pan, Meihong Chen and Wen-Lung Shiau
The public health emergency of COVID-19 (Corona-virus disease) pandemic has greatly impacted tourism industry, especially in the rural tourism. This paper aims to study…
The public health emergency of COVID-19 (Corona-virus disease) pandemic has greatly impacted tourism industry, especially in the rural tourism. This paper aims to study how rural tourism practitioners can get out of the mire of the pandemic. By analyzing the behaviors of various stakeholders and the logic of the impact of the pandemic, the behaviors of participants and future development were sorted out. The key elements that promote the recovery of rural tourism were discovered.
Based on the framework of institute analysis and development (IAD), this research selected six rural tourist communities in China as subjects for the studies. Based on the seven basic principles of hermeneutics and the inductive research method, following the analysis method of “first-order coding, second-order coding, aggregated dimensions,” the texts obtained through in-depth interview and work reports were analyzed and concepts were extracted.
The paper extracted 44 first-order concepts and 14 second-order concepts, and obtained 7 aggregation dimensions, including policy formulation and implementation, improvement of integrated marketing capabilities, improvement of tourism product quality, restrictions on rural tourism development, protection and optimization of environmental resources, industrial integration strategies and improvement of managerial and coordinating capabilities. During the pandemic, the government, enterprises and associations, as the service providers of rural tourism, can optimize the environmental resources and industrial resources of rural tourism by formulating policies, refining products and strengthening marketing in the action arena, to promote the industrial integration of rural tourism and provide better products and services for tourists.
This paper uses the IAD framework to study how rural tourism communities can successfully recover from the impact of the pandemic. It is found that the rapid recovery of rural tourism is the result of collective action. The core of establishing the collective action mechanism of rural tourism is consensus mechanism, co-construction mechanism and sharing mechanism. By studying the path and possibility of collective action of rural tourism communities, this paper explores the approach of multi-center governance of rural tourism communities to promote the imminent recovery of rural tourism.
Rab Nawaz Lodhi, Zahid Mahmood and Cihan Cobanoglu
The purpose of this paper is to design an online-data driven adaptive control scheme based on fuzzy rules emulated network (FREN) for a class of unknown nonlinear…
The purpose of this paper is to design an online-data driven adaptive control scheme based on fuzzy rules emulated network (FREN) for a class of unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.
By using the input-output characteristic curve of controlled plant and the set of IF-THEN rules based on human knowledge inspiration, the adaptive controller is established by an adaptive FREN. The learning algorithm is established with convergence proof of the closed-loop system and controller’s parameters are directly designed by experimental data.
The convergence of tracking error is verified by the theoretical results and the experimental systems. The experimental systems and comparison results show that the proposed controller and its design procedure based on input-output data can achieve superior performance.
The theoretical aspect and experimental systems with the light-emitting diode (LED) current control and the robotic system prove that the proposed controller can be designed by using only input-output data of the controlled plants when the tracking error can be affirmed the convergence.
The proposed controller has been theoretically developed and used through experimental systems by using only input-output data of the controlled plant. The novel design procedure has been proposed by using the input-output characteristic curve for both positive and negative control directions.