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The Crisis of Development Studies There is little doubt that Development Studies are currently facing a crisis of relevance. This is true both at the practical level of…
The Crisis of Development Studies There is little doubt that Development Studies are currently facing a crisis of relevance. This is true both at the practical level of policy as demonstrated by the crushing problems of Third World debt, structural adjustment, persistent poverty; and it is true at the plane of theory, both on the left and the right. One finds authors on the left of the ideological spectrum, such as Blomstrom and Hettne (1984) lamenting the state of gloom and cynicism in development studies. But, more surprizingly, one finds the same lament even among the more orthodox architects of postwar development, such as Hirschman who recently wrote confessionally about the “rise and decline of development economics” and who now recognizes the role of passions, as well as of interests, in economic development (Hirschman 1986).
In international terms, no other country except Sweden has devoted relatively as much as Canada to manpower training. During 1972, for example, training expenditures as a percentage of gross domestic product were: Sweden 43%, Canada 37%, France 15% and the US 09%. Although the Canadian and American economies are similar in many other respects, approximately three‐fourths of one per cent of the Canadian labour force is in training at any one time during the year, compared with one‐half of one percent in America (and one percent in Sweden). In addition, Canadian government expenditures on training per labour force member are approximately twice that of the United States. Clearly, such an important policy raises many issues: How did the policy evolve? What are its objectives? What are the different forms of training, and how are they financed? Who obtains training and is it economically worthwhile? Is there a rationale for government involvement in training?
The heavy commitment by many countries to training programmes as an integral component of manpower policies has prompted a considerable amount of research into these…
The heavy commitment by many countries to training programmes as an integral component of manpower policies has prompted a considerable amount of research into these activities. In particular, the experience of Sweden, Great Britain, and the United States has furnished valuable information concerning the design, implementation, and performance of national training schemes. However, relatively little published evidence has emerged on the Canadian experience, despite the fact that Canada's training effort is large by international standards. The present article utilises Canadian data to address the question of the appropriate method of training. The analysis focuses upon the relative efficacy of two major types of federal government sponsored training carried out under the Canada Manpower Training Program: institutional (or “classroom”) training and on—the—job training (OJT).
In a small, but insightful book, Civilization on Trial, written more than half a century ago, the great English historian, Arnold Toynbee, expressed great pessimism about…
In a small, but insightful book, Civilization on Trial, written more than half a century ago, the great English historian, Arnold Toynbee, expressed great pessimism about the prospects of Western civilisation which he found to be Eurocentric (Toynbee, 1948). Toynbee's study of history was universalistic, reflecting a deep knowledge and respect for non‐Western cultures and civilisations. For Toynbee history was unified whole; it was a universal history of the entire humanity, not just of some Western people. In this sense, Toynbee is similar to the great Muslim scholar, Ibn Khaldun, the author of Muqaddimah, written almost six centuries ago, as an inquiry into the causes of the rise and decline of civilisations (Mehmet, 1990: 81–4).
In the analysis of Third World economic and rural development, Malaysia represents an intriguing and somewhat special case. Many applaud the impressive growth registered…
In the analysis of Third World economic and rural development, Malaysia represents an intriguing and somewhat special case. Many applaud the impressive growth registered since independence and particularly in recent years; as Vokes testifies, Malaysia is “one of the most successful cases of economic development in the Third World.” It has managed a structural transformation of its economic base from one relying on primary commodities to one in which manufacturers now play a central role; not denying the intermittent problem of fluctuating growth and uneven development.
The last two centuries, roughly from the publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, have witnessed a remarkable process of globalization of Western capitalism. The principal institutions facilitating this process were originally the chartered companies and, in the more recent times, the multinational corporations headquartered in the West. Search for global profits has always been the driving force behind this globalization. But the deeper inner logic of this process is capitalization on a world‐scale.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and work engagement and the mediating effect of self-efficacy on…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and work engagement and the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the POS–work engagement relationship.
A questionnaire survey was developed and distributed to a sample of primary school teachers drawn from the education industry.
Analysis of the data supports a strong positive relationship between the extent of POS and work engagement. This study also found that self-efficacy mediated the relationship between POS and work engagement.
This study has important implications for managers. First, it motivates managers, by providing justification for provision of support to employees for increased engagement at work. Based on the results of this study, POS is associated with enhanced work engagement levels. Second, evidence from this study illustrates to the organization the importance of developing an environment of support to further enhance work engagement. When employees do not acknowledge and feel supported from their respective organizations, work engagement levels may be sub-optimal. This research is limited, as the data were collected at one point of time, and this has implications for employees and organizations.
There is increasing recognition of the importance of POS in enhanced work engagement levels. Within this context, no previous research has empirically examined the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between POS and work engagement in the setting of primary education sector.
States that Abu Hamid Muhammad Al‐Ghazzali (ad1058‐1111) is generally regarded as the Islamic equivalent of Kant. Reveals that he was a prolific and influential scholar…
States that Abu Hamid Muhammad Al‐Ghazzali (ad1058‐1111) is generally regarded as the Islamic equivalent of Kant. Reveals that he was a prolific and influential scholar, and that a central objective of Ghazzali in all his writings was the unity of knowledge, rooted in the Oneness of God, and reason (i.e. intellect plus free will) as the path for all moral concepts ultimately leading to the belief in God. Argues that Ghazzali’s ideas of good government, Dawlat, based on social justice, ad’l, penned 1,000 years ago, are still refreshing and relevant today. For, as humanity approaches a new millennium and globalization is slowly integrating peoples and cultures of the world, demands for global equity and good governance are at the top of the international reform agenda. Concludes that, in this context, Ghazzali’s ideas are especially relevant for a critical analysis of a discipline, i.e. economic development, which has for too long been Eurocentric.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot professionals in the hotel and tourism industry on the island of Cyprus with…
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot professionals in the hotel and tourism industry on the island of Cyprus with regards to their expectations regarding the benefit of a political solution to the Cyprus problem on the island.
The paper uses data from two surveys in both political entities of the island. One survey is a survey of hotel owners, managers of hotels and travel agencies in both political entities on the island. The other is semi-structured interview with leading professionals in the hospitality and tourism industry in both political entities.
The surveys indicate that there is an expectation from professionals in both entities that tourism will benefit all following a solution, with large increases in incoming tourism to Cyprus.
The findings indicate that there are substantial expectations that there will be benefits for all following a solution to the Cyprus problem.
This is a first future-oriented paper regarding the expectations of major players in the hotel and tourism industry in both political entities on the island.
After the restoration of Turkish parliamentary democracy in 1961, Turkey adopted the path of development by planning to be coordinated by the newly created State Planning…
After the restoration of Turkish parliamentary democracy in 1961, Turkey adopted the path of development by planning to be coordinated by the newly created State Planning Organisation (SPO). Manpower and educational planning were given top priority and longrange forecasting became an important task of SPO's Social Planning Department (SPD). Some 20 years later, the same institutional organisation and the original preoccupation with longrange manpower forecasting is maintained, despite the fact that this period has seen a rapid technological, structural and industrial transformation of the economy and the emergence of an acute problem of unemployment. While manpower planning is focused on future labour market conditions, there is virtually no employment policy designed to accelerate productive employment creation in the short and medium runs.