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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2022

Megan S. Patterson, Christina Amo, Allison N. Francis, Katie M. Heinrich, Tyler Prochnow, Jocelyn Hunyadi and Sydney Miller

This paper aims to use social network analysis (SNA) to determine whether compulsive exercise (CE) was related to social connections and network position among…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use social network analysis (SNA) to determine whether compulsive exercise (CE) was related to social connections and network position among participants of group-exercise programs.

Design/methodology/approach

Members from two group-exercise programs (Gym 1: n = 103; Gym 2: n = 56) completed an online survey measuring their social connections within the program, CE, depressive symptoms and sense of belonging. Network position was calculated for each person based on network centrality scores (i.e. closeness, eigenvector centrality). Linear network autocorrelation models determined whether respondents reported similar CE as their network ties (i.e., network effects) and whether network position was related to CE in these networks.

Findings

Eigenvector centrality (i.e., being connected to popular/important people within the network; Gym 1: parameter estimate [PE] = 0.51, p < 0.01, Gym 2: PE = 0.39, p = 0.02) and network effects (i.e. having similar CE scores as direct network ties; Gym 1: PE = 0.07, p < 0.01, Gym 2: PE = 0.19, p < 0.01) were related to CE among participants in these programs.

Originality/value

This study builds on existing SNA research suggesting the importance of social connections and network position on CE, and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first to explore these effects among group-exercise participants. This study describes how the social environment can impact, both positively and negatively, someone’s susceptibility for CE and supports fostering social connections within group-exercise programs as a way to potentially combat harmful CE among its participants.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2020

Shelby C. Lautner, Megan S. Patterson, Mandy N. Spadine, Taylor Graves Boswell and Katie M. Heinrich

The purpose of this study is to qualitatively explore and describe the social environment of CrossFit®.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to qualitatively explore and describe the social environment of CrossFit®.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 6 focus groups (n = 48) and 16 interviews were held with CrossFit® participants, coaches and owners. Each focus group or interview was facilitated by trained members of the research team. After data collection was complete, four trained researchers analyzed transcriptions using an open coding method to derive themes from responses, followed by inter-rater reliability checks to ensure consistency in data analysis.

Findings

Five themes emerged including: support (the social capital community members received from others through CrossFit®, including encouragement, coaching and accountability); culture (describes how CrossFit® as a community embraces a variety of skill levels and members experience a sense of camaraderie, acceptance and shared goals); social aspect (ways CrossFit® incorporates and extends community through a welcoming environment and fostering relationships building); competition (competing with others and oneself at CrossFit® is key to motivation and success at the gym); and barriers to community (ways CrossFit® can at times be intimidating).

Practical implications

Although exploratory, this study suggests the importance of CrossFit®’s social environment for a participant’s experience. Future research could determine how relationships within CrossFit® relate to health outcomes.

Originality/value

This research is original and important to the field of mental health as it explores how CrossFit® can be leveraged as a strategy to promote social inclusion. CrossFit® provides an environment that promotes healthy habits such as community involvement and exercise.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Tyler Prochnow, Megan S. Patterson and M. Renee Umstattd Meyer

Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCs) provide numerous avenues for youth to connect, be physically active and have healthy meals/snacks. These services are often provided…

Abstract

Purpose

Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCs) provide numerous avenues for youth to connect, be physically active and have healthy meals/snacks. These services are often provided to low-income families at reduced cost to bridge the gap in after school and summer childcare. However, many of these clubs were forced to dramatically change their services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine how 13 BGCs in Texas, USA, experienced COVID-19 and persevered to provide services.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with 16 BGC leaders from 13 different BGCs. Open-ended questions were used to elicit leaders’ experiences with the pandemic, services their clubs were able to offer, barriers overcome and supports crucial to their ability to serve their communities. Thematic analysis was used to generate findings from these interviews.

Findings

BGC services changed significantly during the pandemic. Normal activities were no longer possible; however, leaders (alongside their communities) continually provided services for their families. Further, leaders reiterated the power of the community coming together in support of their families.

Social implications

While BGC leaders had to adapt services, they found ways to reach families and serve their community. These adaptations can have dramatic impacts on the social and physical well-being of children in their communities. Learning from this adversity can improve services as clubs start to build back.

Originality/value

This study provides vital context to the changing care and setting children were exposed to during the pandemic response. Additionally, these results provide understanding of the adaptations that took place in these services.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Tyler Prochnow, Logan Hartnell and Megan S. Patterson

Online gaming offers avenue to connect with others producing social capital especially for individuals lacking in-real-life (IRL) social support; however, there is…

Abstract

Purpose

Online gaming offers avenue to connect with others producing social capital especially for individuals lacking in-real-life (IRL) social support; however, there is concerns related to mental health and depressive symptoms (DS). Virtually mediated social connections are particularly important during times of social distancing. This paper aims to investigate discussant networks established through an online gaming site and their possible association with DS and social support.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (n =40) recruited from an online gaming site reported DS, online and IRL social support, and site members with whom they discussed important life matters. Participants also reported topics of conversation discussed and reason for communication. Quadratic assignment procedure multiple regression was used to determined significant associations between network structure, DS and social support.

Findings

DS were significantly associated with online (ß = 0.39) and IRL social support (ß = −0.44). Online social support was significantly associated with network structural factors. Topics reported by members most often were bridging capital topics while topics reported by members in most recent conversation were bonding capital topics. Members mentioned bonding social capital concepts as motivation for conversation.

Social implications

Building online relationships to provide bonding social capital could supply buffering effects for those feeling socially isolated during social distancing.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to approach online gaming communication through social network analysis and qualitative analysis mixed method approach.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Tyler Prochnow, Megan S. Patterson, Logan Hartnell and M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

Increases in video game use have led to mental health concerns, citing greater risk for depressive symptoms (DS) and reduced “in-real-life” (IRL) social involvement…

Abstract

Purpose

Increases in video game use have led to mental health concerns, citing greater risk for depressive symptoms (DS) and reduced “in-real-life” (IRL) social involvement. However, recent studies have uncovered potential social benefits for online gaming. Many games provide avenues to extend real life relationships and make new online friendships. The purpose of this pilot study is to use social network analysis to determine associations between connections and DS in a gaming community.

Design/methodology/approach

As a pilot study, members of an online gaming site were asked to report demographic characteristics, DS, IRL social support, online social support and IRL people and members of the online community with whom they spoke to about important life matters. Multi-level modeling was used to parse variance described by demographic characteristics, IRL measures and online measures. Linear network autocorrelation modeling (LNAM) was used to determine relationships between network connections and DS.

Findings

Members (n = 37; µ = 24.76 years old, SD = 6.55; 100% male; 89.2% white) on average felt DS’ “not at all” to “several days” over the past two weeks. Multi-level modeling including online network measures explained 50% of variance (R2 = 0.50, F (9,27) = 2.98, p = 0.01); online connections were associated with DS (ß = 0.46). LNAM indicated DS were associated with IRL support (ß = −2.66), IRL connections (ß = 1.81), online support (ß = 2.40) and network effects (ß = 0.06), which indicates that a gamer’s DS were similar to those of their online connections.

Originality/value

Members with more DS may be seeking help via online channels. This may be important for future research to consider alternative forms of help-seeking behavior.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2020

Tyler Prochnow, Megan S. Patterson and Logan Hartnell

The increase of videogame use has raised concerns regarding mental health of gamers (e.g. social isolation, depression); however, online gaming may offer the benefit of…

Abstract

Purpose

The increase of videogame use has raised concerns regarding mental health of gamers (e.g. social isolation, depression); however, online gaming may offer the benefit of social connectivity. Many games provide ways for people to meet and interact, providing social opportunities difficult to come by for some young adults. One way to investigate social connection is through social network analysis, which explores the influence of connections on behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to analyze factors related to social connections within an online gaming community, with an emphasis on the influence of social support and depressive symptoms on network ties.

Design/methodology/approach

All members of an online gaming site were asked to report demographics, site use, depressive symptoms, “in-real-life” (IRL) social support, and online social support. Members were also asked to nominate those in their gaming network with whom they spoke to about important life matters. Moran’s I determined the spatial autocorrelation of depressive symptoms and IRL support within the network. Exponential random graph modeling determined factors significantly associated with tie presence between members.

Findings

Members (n=37) were significantly more likely to speak to other members about important life matters if they reported more site hours, more depressive symptoms, and less IRL support. Depressive symptoms and IRL support were not significantly spatially autocorrelated within this network.

Originality/value

Results suggest members may be filling an IRL social support deficit with friends they have met online. Additionally, members who reported more depressive symptoms may be seeking help from informal online connections through online gaming.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Shelby C. Lautner, Megan S. Patterson, Melitza Ramirez and Katie Heinrich

CrossFit has been popularized for the high intensity workouts it provides and the sense of community it facilitates; however, its potential as an adjunctive treatment for…

Abstract

Purpose

CrossFit has been popularized for the high intensity workouts it provides and the sense of community it facilitates; however, its potential as an adjunctive treatment for addiction is unknown, as is has not been published in traditional peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the potential for CrossFit to benefit individuals in addiction recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

A search was conducted using the search terms “CrossFit,” “addiction” and “addiction recovery.” A tool was created to categorize key information within articles such as type(s) of addiction described, mention of support/community, main narrative type (personal story, information about a treatment centers, etc.), mental health described as a comorbidity, and if the exercise program(s) was(were) used to prevent, sustain or support recovery.

Findings

Nearly half of the articles reviewed (48 per cent) described personal stories related to using CrossFit as a means to overcome addiction, and 26 per cent were about CrossFit gyms targeting addiction recovery. A key finding was that 62 per cent of all articles mentioned the community and social component of CrossFit as an important mechanism of the recovery process. Finally, 33 per cent of articles recognized mental health as a comorbidity to addiction and therefore also proposed CrossFit as a suitable way to improve mental health.

Research limitations/implications

Although this was a review of gray literature, the findings reveal how CrossFit may be an innovative approach for supporting addiction recovery.

Practical implications

The potential benefits identified in the articles demonstrate the positive impact that CrossFit may have on recovering addicts. Empirical research is needed to objectively study the impact of key aspects that CrossFit can provide to individuals overcoming addiction.

Originality/value

This study provides an example of how anecdotal evidence of addiction recovery can be used for analysis, thus providing a strategy to be implemented in addiction treatment facilities. CrossFit has been widely popularized by the fitness community, but the social support and exercise it provides may be a leverage point for supporting individuals in recovery.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Tyler Prochnow, Megan S. Patterson, Joseph Sharkey and M. Renee Umstattd Meyer

The health equity and prosperity of communities is closely linked to the effectiveness and success of local health coalitions. Social network analysis (SNA) is one…

Abstract

Purpose

The health equity and prosperity of communities is closely linked to the effectiveness and success of local health coalitions. Social network analysis (SNA) is one mechanism to quantify and understand the factors leading to collaboration and effectiveness within these coalitions. This study aims to investigate network characteristics associated with perceived success and satisfaction in a health coalition and determine significant factors related to organizational collaborations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the Olympic Peninsula Healthy Community Coalition (OPHCC) which aims to prevent chronic disease in rural Clallam County, Washington. Representatives (n = 21) from member organizations (n = 18) were asked to report on organization characteristics, perceived satisfaction in coalition activities, perceived success toward coalition's mission, and collaborations with other organizations in the coalition. Multilevel modeling used to analyze whether an organization's position within the coalition network was associated with their perceived satisfaction and perceived success. Exponential random graph modeling was used to examine what factors may impact collaboration ties between coalition members.

Findings

Organization representatives reported a total of 252 collaboration ties. In multilevel models, organization characteristics and network centrality scores accounted for between 61 and 68% of variance displayed in satisfaction scores and 45–61% of variance in perceived success scores. Exponential random graph modeling revealed activity level, for-profit status, and transitivity as significant factors in collaborative tie presence.

Originality/value

Encouraging consistent active participation, a balance of organizational type, and projects which require more than two collaborators may provide an environment for collaborative ties between organizations.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Janet R. McColl-Kennedy, Paul Patterson, Michael K. Brady, Lilliemay Cheung and Doan Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is to explicate professionals’ giving backstory, identifying what motivates and hinders professionals’ undertaking of pro bono service…

1036

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explicate professionals’ giving backstory, identifying what motivates and hinders professionals’ undertaking of pro bono service activities. Examples are provided of different pro bono giving styles, as professionals struggle to resolve inter-institutional tensions, thus addressing this little understood yet vital form of giving, and meeting an important research priority.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a discovery-oriented grounded theory approach, this paper draws on narratives from interviews with 31 professionals to explicate, from the professional’s point of view, the backstory of pro bono service.

Findings

The authors provide an integrative institutional logics-based framework for understanding the backstory to professionals’ giving. Three distinct pro bono giving styles are revealed: first, an individual logic (self-centric), an “I” logic; second, an organizational logic (organization-centric), “We” logic; and third, a societal “All” logic (where the greater good to society in general is the dominant logic). The paper concludes with recommendations for how professionals and professional service firms (PSFs) can better align their pro bono giving styles with non-paying not-for-profit clients for multi-party benefit.

Originality/value

The originality of this research lies in addressing an important yet little understood form of giving through delving into the backstory to pro bono service. First, the paper theorizes the characteristics of a formerly unarticulated form of giving, distinguishing it from individual-to-individual close consumer gifting, individual to organizational charitable giving, sponsorship, and volunteering. Second, the different inter-institutional logics of pro bono giving are identified, with three main pro bono giving styles uncovered. Third, the authors link professional services theory, theoretical perspectives from giving, and institutional logics theory to develop an integrated framework to explain service professionals’ pro bono activities. Furthermore, a compelling agenda for future research is provided to guide future work.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Maheran Zakaria, Hasnah Haron and Ishak Ismail

The paper aims to investigate: the influence of knowledge of ethics (KOE) on auditors' perceived ethical problems (PEB); the influence of PEB on ethical judgments (EJ);…

3989

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate: the influence of knowledge of ethics (KOE) on auditors' perceived ethical problems (PEB); the influence of PEB on ethical judgments (EJ); and the mediating impact of PEB that mediate the relationship between KOE and EJ.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 940 questionnaires were distributed to auditors of audit firms in Malaysia and 250 auditors responded. However, only 224 questionnaires were usable. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and structural equation modeling (SEM) using AMOSS 16.0.

Findings

The results indicated that statistically significant relationships exist between KOE and PEB, PEB, and EJ. Additionally, PEB are found to mediate the relationship between KOE and EJ.

Practical implications

This paper provides important implication for audit firms to enhance sufficient knowledge of Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA)'s code of ethical principles among their members. Another implication is for professional bodies to design a complete and effective code of ethics, disseminate free information to members through web site and e‐notification and conduct professional development programs with the latest development on a regular basis.

Originality/value

The number of studies on the impact of PEB as a mediator that mediates the relationship between KOE and EJ is scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to fill this gap. The findings provide insights that it is imperative to emphasize the importance of KOE and PEB in enhancing auditors' EJ.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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