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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Ram Herstein and Ron Berger

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies

Abstract

Purpose

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies, and how businesses take advantage of such opportunities to increase their incomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A new framework is presented that is based on four different alternatives for city re‐branding strategies based on sport events. These four re‐branding strategies are derived from two main dimensions: the locus of the sports event (local vs international) and the longevity of the sports event (one‐off vs continual).

Findings

Prospective hosts of mega or international sports events must ensure that people all over the world see their city as a leisure, tourism and consumption center and not just a sports arena. Conversely, when hosting medium or minor sports events, planners must aim for these sport events to increase residents' civic pride.

Practical implications

This conceptual paper demonstrates how city planners and decision makers can leverage their city image and its business sector's potential to earn from this event directly and indirectly, based on the aforesaid four re‐branding strategies: Mega sports events, International sports events, Medium sport events, and Minor sport events.

Originality/value

This article deals with four types of sports event strategies at the same time, whereas other investigations tend to deal with only a single type.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Dongfeng Liu, Christopher Hautbois and Michel Desbordes

Using Beijing’s bid for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games as an example, the purpose of this paper is to explore the expected social impact of mega-sporting events, as…

Abstract

Purpose

Using Beijing’s bid for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games as an example, the purpose of this paper is to explore the expected social impact of mega-sporting events, as perceived by non-host city residents, and the way in which this perception affects attitudes toward bidding.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical survey study was conducted in which data were collected from residents in Shanghai, comprising a sample of 483 respondents. An exploratory factor analysis identified 40 items loaded on eight distinctive factors that underlie the expected social impact of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of the perceived impact on residents’ attitudes toward the bid to host the Olympics.

Findings

Among the eight identified impact factors, six were found to be positive and two negative. While all factors were significantly higher above the point of indifference, perceived positive impact factors tended to outweigh those that were negative. In addition, seven out of the eight factors were found to be significantly predictive of support for Beijing’s bidding: while the effect of “tourism and environment,” “social capital and psychic income,” “international cooperation and exchange,” “infrastructure,” “national image,” and “sport development” was positive, the effect of the “higher living cost” factor was negative with regard to the support of the bidding. This study seeks to contribute by taking a non-host community perspective.

Originality/value

A growing body of literature has documented perspectives on events and their specific timing during event cycles, i.e., during the bidding stage. In addition, it also offers insight into the perception and attitudes of citizens from emerging markets toward event bidding and hosting, both of which play an increasingly important role in global sports but, on the whole, remain relatively under researched.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Hansruedi Müller and Christian Moesch

The aim of this paper is to develop procedures that make it possible to evaluate appropriately the economic infrastructure repercussions of a mega sports event, aiming at…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to develop procedures that make it possible to evaluate appropriately the economic infrastructure repercussions of a mega sports event, aiming at both theoretical and practical scientific targets. On the one hand, this involves developing exegeses while, on the other, the focus is on problem‐led structuring. To fulfil both requirements means following objective‐cum‐analytical as well as empirical strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Staging mega sports events necessitates the availability of appropriate infrastructure, both for specific events and for general purposes. Investments in infrastructure triggered by mega sports events are often of considerable importance for any calculation of their economic impact. The scale of the impacts identified largely depends on the basic demarcation between event‐related and non‐event‐related investments. Developed in former literature the six models derived from procedures are used as potential demarcation approaches. Their application is shown in four case studies.

Findings

The application of the six different models to four case studies shows that event‐related investment varies considerably depending on the model selected, thus decisively influencing impact study results. The determining effect of the choice of model is illustrated by applying the case of UEFA Euro 2008. The results differ from 63.2 million CHF at the minimum to 196.4 million CHF at the maximum.

Research limitations/implications

None of the six evaluated models manages to reflect reality truthfully and totally comprehensively. However, this is due not so much to faulty theoretical design as to the fact that reality is always more complex than the model which therefore can never fully mirror it. Every model provides its own specific information and so – depending on the basic situation and the actual problem – is justified in its own right.

Originality/value

The paper attempts to close the gap in connection with the demarcation of event‐related investments. As the studied demarcation problem remains the same, irrespective of the type of event, the scope for applying these models goes far beyond the case studies looked at here. The models in their final form are new. The findings obtained can also be adapted to other types of events.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2015

Dongfeng Liu

Using Shanghai F1 as an example, this research seeks to examine the impact of mega-events on host city image from the perspective of international students. Leisure…

Abstract

Using Shanghai F1 as an example, this research seeks to examine the impact of mega-events on host city image from the perspective of international students. Leisure facilities and service were the most positive image impact perceived by the respondents, followed by affective city images as well as opportunities and convenience. International students tended to disagree that F1 would result in any crime and security problems and were unsure about any negative impact on environment and daily life. Some of the image factors were significantly related to intention to work in the city or the willingness to recommend the city.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

David M. Herold, Tim Breitbarth, Nico Schulenkorf and Sebastian Kummer

Although logistics management is a crucial part of local and global sports events, there is no research-driven characterization of “sports logistics management”. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Although logistics management is a crucial part of local and global sports events, there is no research-driven characterization of “sports logistics management”. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a framework that allows for a more structured recognition of logistics in sports, in general, and sport event management, in particular. In addition, we conduct a systematic literature review of sports logistics management and locate opportunities for future research both for sports management and logistics management scholars.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by Durach et al.’s (2017) systematic literature review approach, we identify key attributes and characteristics of sports logistics management. These are based on studies featuring at least partial aspects of logistics management in sports and sport events, and that were published between 2000 and mid-2019.

Findings

The study reveals that sports logistics management – meaning logistics activities in sports and sport event management – is a heavily under-researched area that provides an abundance of scientific opportunities. Based on the three sport event types of local/regional sport events, major sport events and mega sport events, the authors propose four sports logistics management pillars that are central to the proposed Sport Logistics Framework: venue logistics management, sports equipment logistics management, athletes logistics management, and fan and spectators logistics management.

Practical implications

By providing a conceptual framework for sports logistics, the authors progress towards informing the sport sector on relevant strategic and operational levels of logistics management and set the stage for empirical studies that are likely to advance sport logistics planning and management.

Originality/value

This is the first study that builds on a systematic review of literature specifically focused on the logistics aspect in sports and sport event management. It provides a conceptual framework of sports logistics management and offers an agenda of future research opportunities.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Pam Kappelides, Shane Barry, Eunjung Kim, Liz Fredline and Graham Cuskelly

This article assesses how the human management practices of recruitment, selection, orientation, training and recognition enacted by the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games…

Abstract

Purpose

This article assesses how the human management practices of recruitment, selection, orientation, training and recognition enacted by the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games impacted volunteers' experiences and their likelihood of volunteering in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data from 30 volunteers, involved in various stages (including selected and not selected) of the selection process for the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games, was collected through focus group interviews.

Findings

The findings offer important insights for mega sport event managers and their organisations around utilising a traditional human resource management approach for their volunteer workforce.

Originality/value

The findings of the study point to a number of important opportunities for mega event organisers: ensuring there is a personal and consistent approach for all volunteers (even volunteers who are not successful in the application), flexibility in the way volunteers are provided training and support (online, self-paced and tailored to specific roles) and ensuring that organising committees have a strong strategy and direction for host cities to engage in a volunteer legacy.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Nicolas Chanavat and Michel Desbordes

This study investigates the regulation and restriction of ambush marketing during the London 2012 Olympic Games, with analysis of actions taken via social networks and…

Abstract

This study investigates the regulation and restriction of ambush marketing during the London 2012 Olympic Games, with analysis of actions taken via social networks and digital marketing related to the mega sports event. Results show that, where this issue was concerned, the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) was the most restrictive OCOG in history. However, there are neither specific legal tools nor international agreements to prohibit ambush marketing and protect official sponsorships. This paper looks at the proliferation of ambush cases during the London 2012 Olympics and underlines the widespread growth of this practice, despite reinforcement of existing laws. Findings show that brands were very imaginative at the expense of official sponsors and that social networks can be powerful publicity channels.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Hiba Khodr

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main driving factors behind the recent increase in the event market size in Qatar from a public policy perspective. It reports…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main driving factors behind the recent increase in the event market size in Qatar from a public policy perspective. It reports on a case study of the 2006 15th Asian Games that assisted in further examining both the underlying and implicit motives behind the phenomenon as well as its expected policy implications.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory paper uses a case study approach in which two complementary types of data sources are employed. The qualitative data was mainly obtained from in‐depth semi‐structured interviews conducted with 26 key stakeholders ranging from middle to senior professionals, academicians, high‐ranking officials from the local tourism/sports authorities, and representatives from the private sector. The data was further enhanced by an extensive review and analysis of related documents available in the public domain. Data was analyzed using an iterative thematic content analysis whose findings served to illustrate the theoretical perspectives in the relevant prevailing literature.

Findings

Findings suggest that Qatar is using events as a way to reimage and position itself as a destination and increase its profile internationally in addition to gaining a competitive edge regionally. Other explanatory factors include: economic sustainability and diversification plans and tourism‐related policies as well as social development strategies. Another identified driver is linked to globalization and modernization trends. These driving factors are consistent with the ones acknowledged in the literature on national and urban event strategies and their purpose.

Originality/value

The analysis conducted in this paper laid the foundation for much needed future evaluation studies on the country's tourism strategies and trends as well as events' impacts. The treatment of this subject from a governmental policy angle has not received nearly enough attention among scholars of tourism policy and events management. Moreover, considering the growing event market in Qatar, this paper fills the gap in the literature in terms of analyzing the driving forces behind this growth and highlights important issues specific to a relatively unexplored region undergoing rapid development.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Annarita Sorrentino, Xiaoxiao Fu, Rosaria Romano, Michele Quintano and Marcello Risitano

This study aims to analyze the impact of event experience on event satisfaction and intentions to return and recommend the destination.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the impact of event experience on event satisfaction and intentions to return and recommend the destination.

Design/methodology/approach

Relationships among constructs were tested on data gathered from 542 tourists during the America's Cup World Series held in South Italy in April 2013 by using a structural equation modeling approach. Moreover, a multigroup analysis was developed to test the possible moderator factors.

Findings

The results revealed that event experience and event satisfaction had positive impacts on the intentions to recommend and return to the host destination. Moreover, nationality, gender and trip motivation emerged as important moderating factors in the relationships among the latent constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this paper enrich the existing literature and help tourism destination marketers and managers consider the triggering factors of a satisfying mega-sports event for the host destination and the marketing power of the on-site experience.

Practical implications

Practitioners should draw on the insights provided by this study to design destination strategies, particularly by paying attention to how an event experience causes an attendee to return to and recommend the host destination.

Originality/value

This study enriches the existing event literature in several ways. First, it emphasizes the importance of the event experience to the satisfaction level and willingness to return and recommend the host destination for a vacation, supporting the link between an event and its destination. Second, it provides a moderating analysis that offers new insights for marketing the event experience. It offers a multilevel model of mega-event tourism legacy, which opens up new avenues of research. Third, complementing the consumer-based analysis, this research includes the trend of visits (after 2013 to the present) to examine how a mega-sport event has brought about more postevent visits.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2020

Youngbum Kwon and T. Bettina Cornwell

Given the public availability of secondary data on investments in events such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup and professional sports, event studies that measure stock…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the public availability of secondary data on investments in events such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup and professional sports, event studies that measure stock market response to these investments have grown. Previous findings are mixed, however, with some studies suggesting that the announcement of sponsorship contracts is a positive event and others finding detrimental effects of the announcement on shareholder value. This study aims to analyze the mixed findings from event studies in sport sponsorship to determine if sponsorship announcements influence stock market response.

Design/methodology/approach

The meta-analysis examines more than 20 years of research on event studies in sponsorship (34 studies).

Findings

The overall results show a positive, but non-significant effect of partnership deal announcements on shareholder wealth. Further analysis considers the effects of sponsorship announcements by each type of event window to see the impact of the announcement relative to time (pre-announcement, announcement day, post-announcement and pre- to post-announcement). This closer examination of the event window shows that stock prices of sponsoring organizations increased in the pre-announcement window.

Originality/value

Quantitative meta-analytic findings indicate that information about sponsorship deals appears to leak to share markets and positively influence share price. This finding suggests that sponsoring the sports and events found in these event studies is seen as value enhancing for sponsoring firms.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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