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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Michèle E.M. Akoorie

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents (the medieval guild) of modern day industrial clustering. The paper challenges the notion that work of Alfred…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents (the medieval guild) of modern day industrial clustering. The paper challenges the notion that work of Alfred Marshall provides the intellectual underpinning of cluster thinking.

Design/methodology/approach

The source material uses archival research on medieval guilds and historical texts. In tracing the development of forms of co‐operative association this paper employs the technique of genealogical spanning. The prism of forms of co‐operative association is used to examine the rise and fall of the medieval guild.

Findings

Medieval guilds have been largely ignored by modern proponents of cluster theory and Italianate industrial districts. Guild activity in technological invention and innovation, in skills transfer and knowledge (both codified and tacit) had many of the same positive attributes that are found in neo‐Marshallian industrial districts. The long history of cooperative behaviour in geographically concentrated firms in industrial districts had its genesis in the medieval guild.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that collaboration (in craft guilds) and clusters (cooperation and relationships) have been a dominant paradigm since the Middle Ages; a viewpoint which is commonly ignored by the dominant US‐centric view of individualism, competition and arms lengths relationships in business. Cooperation and relationships have attracted significant scholarly attention and most recently the studies in the cluster literature have tended to favour the social and knowledge‐based approach. This phenomenon suggests that the future social, political and economic dynamics in Europe will remain firmly rooted in the creation of areas of regional specialization, as has been the case in the past.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to our understanding of the embeddedness of cooperation by comparing the characteristics of the medieval guild with the characteristics of modern day (Porterian clusters). Cooperation rather than competition is the dominant paradigm of industrial activity. The competitive divide between employers and employees was an aberration of the Industrial Revolution and promoted by political economists as a means of facilitating the mobility of labour by diffusion.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Justin Larner, Keith Cheverst, Matthew MacDonald, Cefn Hoile and Angus Soutar

The purpose of this paper is to report on an action research project with two emergent micro-businesses that explored how their business model connected with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on an action research project with two emergent micro-businesses that explored how their business model connected with the principles of open source.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first gained initial qualitative data to establish the core values of each micro-business, which the authors then explored in the context of open source and business models in two design workshops with each organisation.

Findings

The authors developed the open source guild business model, which has the elements of: building a focal micro-business with resources secured through the guild, promoting learning and development through apprenticeship, promoting shared values through a commons of experience and capturing value by protecting key intellectual property.

Research limitations/implications

This research was undertaken with two emergent micro-businesses in the North West of England. Further research will be needed to establish the wider applicability of the open source guild model.

Practical implications

The open source guild model can be a mechanism for an emergent micro-business to create a community around their values and grow their business without conventional external investment of resources.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature on business models based on open source and how these models can be sustainable in terms of the quadruple bottom line, which extends the triple bottom line to include personal values and meaning.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Paul Andrew Caulfield

Corporations and businesses have been a major influence on society since before the industrial revolution, but academic focus on corporate responsibilities is a recent…

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Abstract

Purpose

Corporations and businesses have been a major influence on society since before the industrial revolution, but academic focus on corporate responsibilities is a recent phenomenon which focuses predominantly on globalised multi-national corporations of the late twentieth century. The purpose of this paper is to consider the evolution of the corporate responsibility and community involvement tracing the development of corporate behaviours in the UK from medieval guilds to the modern form of corporation seen at the end of the last century.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis considers the institutional forces which have shaped responsible business behaviours in a context of changing power and influence.

Findings

Drawing on Weber's notion of the ideal-type, this paper demonstrates that many “modern” corporate social responsibility (CSR) concepts such as codes of conduct, stakeholder consultation, and corporate donations have considerable heritage.

Originality/value

This paper develops an important precedent by examining the evolution of CSR and other aspects of corporate engagement. It develops a long-term instrumental context for corporate donations, whilst revealing that practices such as employee volunteering are considerably more recent, and less institutionally developed.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Richard A. Hawkins

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of marketing practice in Britain from the ancient to the early twentieth century. It builds upon the author’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of marketing practice in Britain from the ancient to the early twentieth century. It builds upon the author’s chapter in the 2016 Routledge Companion to the History of Marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a review of secondary history and archaeology literature supplemented by digitised historic newspaper and magazine advertising. The literature is frameworked using a modified version of Fullerton’s 1988 periodization which has been extended to include the medieval and Roman eras.

Findings

One of the significant findings of this paper is the key role the state has played in the development of marketing practice in Britain, the construction of pavements being a good example.

Originality/value

Apart from Nevett’s 1982 history of British advertising and the author’s Routledge Companion to the History of Marketing chapter, this is the first survey of the historical development of British marketing practice. It assembles and presents in a useful way important information. This paper will be of interest to marketing historians, especially students and researchers new to the subject.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Francis W. Wolek

The craft guilds of old are prototypes for the legend of European craftsmanship. This paper discusses three managerial principles used by the guilds: regulation, standards…

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Abstract

The craft guilds of old are prototypes for the legend of European craftsmanship. This paper discusses three managerial principles used by the guilds: regulation, standards of accomplishment, and apprenticeship. The rationale behind, and the implementation of, each principle is outlined with reference to historical sources on guild operations. A consistent weakness of guild administration on these principles has been a bias toward self‐interested conservatism. As science and technology progressed, society has responded by abandoning guild administration in favor of independent professional organizations. The paper concludes by noting that, while independent professionalism is progressive, it also minimizes the benefits that guilds obtained from experience‐based knowledge.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 5 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

“All things are in a constant state of change”, said Heraclitus of Ephesus. The waters if a river are for ever changing yet the river endures. Every particle of matter is…

Abstract

“All things are in a constant state of change”, said Heraclitus of Ephesus. The waters if a river are for ever changing yet the river endures. Every particle of matter is in continual movement. All death is birth in a new form, all birth the death of the previous form. The seasons come and go. The myth of our own John Barleycorn, buried in the ground, yet resurrected in the Spring, has close parallels with the fertility rites of Greece and the Near East such as those of Hyacinthas, Hylas, Adonis and Dionysus, of Osiris the Egyptian deity, and Mondamin the Red Indian maize‐god. Indeed, the ritual and myth of Attis, born of a virgin, killed and resurrected on the third day, undoubtedly had a strong influence on Christianity.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Martha M. Corpus

Provides direction for researchers, collection developers and other interested parties to locate sources of information on the English Lollards in the USA. Sources cited…

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Abstract

Provides direction for researchers, collection developers and other interested parties to locate sources of information on the English Lollards in the USA. Sources cited will provide researchers with a feel for the social, economic and political turmoil of the time in England and the Roman Catholic Church.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1969

Chris Price

One of the more successful of the NUT's campaigns in recent years has been that to eliminate untrained teachers and establish the real prospect of a Teachers' Council…

Abstract

One of the more successful of the NUT's campaigns in recent years has been that to eliminate untrained teachers and establish the real prospect of a Teachers' Council, which would for the first time give teachers something of the control over entry standards that other professions have. Perhaps it is all in a good cause. By controlling entry standards (and therefore entry numbers) they will be able to behave like the classical mediaeval guild or twentieth century trade union, and ensure that the slice of the national cake allocated to education is divided up amongst a strictly limited number of people: which is one way of raising salaries. The main object, however, of a Teachers' Council (and certainly that of Ted Short, the Secretary of State for Education and Science) is to bestow upon teachers a greater sense of professionalism, to make them look doctors and lawyers in the face and feel on some sort of equality. As a matter of fact, a hundred Teachers' Councils will not achieve this object unless the salary comes more into line with that of the real professionals. So it will all be a rather slow process: it would be absurd to think that teachers will become different sorts of beings over night.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 11 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Gary D. Holt

– This paper aims to study the British construction sector c.1700-2000 and compare its “proactive” innovative development with “reactive” business evolution.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the British construction sector c.1700-2000 and compare its “proactive” innovative development with “reactive” business evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative, interpretative, literature synthesis was used in this paper.

Findings

Each of the three centuries observed exhibits distinct construction business (CB) characteristics resulting mainly from exogenous influences, including: macroeconomic forces, demand volatility, supply chain and allied sectors’ evolvement, division of labour, competition and technological change. For most CB organisations, innovation was principally an exogenous influence vis-à-vis endogenous strategic intention.

Research limitations/implications

The study adds to a dearth of historical CB research and its documentation.

Practical implications

The evolvement of construction organisations will be of relevance to CB stakeholders.

Originality/value

Construction history is under-researched. Contrasting CB innovation and evolution is novel.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Jaakko Koivumäki

This article aims to introduce a two‐dimensional instrument for the measurement of the social capital of professions. On a general level, the social capital of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to introduce a two‐dimensional instrument for the measurement of the social capital of professions. On a general level, the social capital of a profession is defined as a source of power that allows a profession to further its goals and maintain its professional identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The measure is developed and tested by using data collected among Finnish dentists (N=1,302) in April 2012. The methods employed include confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), mean comparisons (ANOVA and t‐test) and OLS regression. Data analysis is guided by theories of social capital, especially the Putnamian tradition, and the literature on modern professions.

Findings

The first dimension of social capital is social cohesion, which consists of solidarity, trust, identification and commitment to professional ethical principles. The second dimension of social capital is network density, which includes both formal and informal professional networks. Social cohesion and network density are positively correlated. By conceptualizing social capital as an individual‐level attribute, this research shows that the employment of dentists across the public and private sectors increases the social capital of the profession.

Originality/value

Until now no tools have been available for the measurement of the social capital of professions. The article also sheds new light on the nature of modern professions, their associations and sources of power in contemporary societies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 33 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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