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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Kristy Henson, Paul Constantino, F. Robin O’Keefe and Greg Popovich

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use…

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of human skeletal analysis is a sensitive subject in North America. Laws and regulations surrounding research of human skeletal material make it difficult to use these remains to characterize various populations. Recent technology has the potential to solve this dilemma. Three-dimensional (3D) scanning creates virtual models of this material, and stores the information, allowing future studies on the material. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the potential of this methodology, the authors compared processing time, accuracy and costs of computer tomography (CT) scanner to the Artec Eva portable 3D surface scanner. Using both methodologies the authors scanned and 3D printed one adult individual. The authors hypothesize that the Artec Eva will create digital replicas of <5 percent error based on Buikstra and Ubelaker standard osteometric measurements. Error was tested by comparing the measurements of the skeletal material to the Artec data, CT data and 3D printed data.

Findings

Results show that larger bones recorded by the Artec Eva have <5 percent error of the original specimen while smaller more detailed images have >5 percent error. The CT images are closer to <5 percent accuracy, with few bones still >5 percent error. The Artec Eva scanner is inexpensive in comparison to a CT machine, but takes twice as long to process the Eva’s data. The Artec Eva is sufficient in replication of larger elements, but the CT machine is still a preferable means of skeletal replication, particularly for small elements.

Originality/value

This research paper is unique because it compares two common forms of digitization, which has not been done. The authors believe this paper would be of value to natural history curators and various researchers.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Michèle Truscott, Deon de Beer, George Vicatos, Keith Hosking, Ludrick Barnard, Gerrie Booysen and R. Ian Campbell

The last decade has seen major advances in rapid prototyping (RP), with it becoming a multi‐disciplinary technology, crossing various research fields, and connecting…

Abstract

Purpose

The last decade has seen major advances in rapid prototyping (RP), with it becoming a multi‐disciplinary technology, crossing various research fields, and connecting continents. Process and material advancements open up new applications and manufacturing (through RP) is serving non‐traditional industries. RP technology is used to support rapid product development (RPD). The purpose of this paper is to describe how the Integrated Product Development research group of the Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa is applying various CAD/CAM/RP technologies to support a medical team from the Grootte Schuur and Vincent Palotti hospitals in Cape Town, to save limbs – as a last resort at a stage where conventional medical techniques or practices may not apply any longer.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses action research to justify the proposal of a new method to use CAD/CAM/RP related technologies to substitute lost/damaged bone regions through the use of CT to CAD to.STL manipulation.

Findings

A case study where RP related technologies were used to support medical product development for a patient with severe injuries from a road accident is discussed.

Originality/value

The paper considers current available technologies, and discusses new advancements in direct metal freeform fabrication, and its potential to revolutionise the medical industry.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2019

Guillermo A. Sandoval, Adalsteinn D. Brown, Walter P. Wodchis and Geoffrey M. Anderson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between hospital adoption and use of computed tomography (CT) scanners, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between hospital adoption and use of computed tomography (CT) scanners, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines and in-patient mortality and length of stay.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used panel data (2007–2010) from 124 hospital corporations operating in Ontario, Canada. Imaging use focused on medical patients accounting for 25 percent of hospital discharges. Main outcomes were in-hospital mortality rates and average length of stay. A model for each outcome-technology combination was built, and controlled for hospital structural characteristics, market factors and patient characteristics.

Findings

In 2010, 36 and 59 percent of hospitals had adopted MRI machines and CT scanners, respectively. Approximately 23.5 percent of patients received CT scans and 3.5 percent received MRI scans during the study period. Adoption of these technologies was associated with reductions of up to 1.1 percent in mortality rates and up to 4.5 percent in length of stay. The imaging use–mortality relationship was non-linear and varied by technology penetration within hospitals. For CT, imaging use reduced mortality until use reached 19 percent in hospitals with one scanner and 28 percent in hospitals with 2+ scanners. For MRI, imaging use was largely associated with decreased mortality. The use of CT scanners also increased length of stay linearly regardless of technology penetration (4.6 percent for every 10 percent increase in use). Adoption and use of MRI was not associated with length of stay.

Research limitations/implications

These results suggest that there may be some unnecessary use of imaging, particularly in small hospitals where imaging is contracted out. In larger hospitals, the results highlight the need to further investigate the use of imaging beyond certain thresholds. Independent of the rate of imaging use, the results also indicate that the presence of CT and MRI devices within a hospital benefits quality and efficiency.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the combined effect of adoption and use of medical imaging on outcomes specific to CT scanners and MRI machines in the context of hospital in-patient care.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2017

Maureen van Eijnatten, Ferco Henricus Berger, Pim de Graaf, Juha Koivisto, Tymour Forouzanfar and Jan Wolff

Additive manufactured (AM) skull models are increasingly used to plan complex surgical cases and design custom implants. The accuracy of such constructs depends on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufactured (AM) skull models are increasingly used to plan complex surgical cases and design custom implants. The accuracy of such constructs depends on the standard tessellation language (STL) model, which is commonly obtained from computed tomography (CT) data. The aims of this study were to assess the image quality and the accuracy of STL models acquired using different CT scanners and acquisition parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

Images of three dry human skulls were acquired using two multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners, a dual energy computed tomography (DECT) scanner and one cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner. Different scanning protocols were used on each scanner. All images were ranked according to their image quality and converted into STL models. The STL models were compared to gold standard models.

Findings

Image quality differed between the MDCT, DECT and CBCT scanners. Images acquired using low-dose MDCT protocols were preferred over images acquired using routine protocols. All CT-based STL models demonstrated non-uniform geometrical deviations of up to +0.9 mm. The largest deviations were observed in CBCT-derived STL models.

Practical implications

While patient-specific AM constructs can be fabricated with great accuracy using AM technologies, their design is more challenging because it is dictated by the correctness of the STL model. Inaccurate STL models can lead to ill-fitting implants that can cause complications after surgery.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that CT imaging technologies and their acquisition parameters affect the accuracy of medical AM constructs.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Karla P. Simmons and Cynthia L. Istook

With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non‐contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the…

Abstract

With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non‐contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the measurements should be established so that standardization of the data capture can be realized. The purpose of this study was to compare body‐scanning measurement extraction methods and terminology with traditional anthropometric methods. A total of 21 measurements were chosen as being critical to the design of well‐fitting garments. Current body scanners were analyzed for availability of information, willingness of company cooperation, and relevance to applications in the apparel industry. On each of the 21 measurements, standard measurement procedure was identified for three different scanners: [TC]2, Cyberware, and SYMCAD. Of the 21 measures in the study, [TC]2 was the scanner that had the most measures identified for the study and also had the capability of producing many more with specific application for apparel.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Jin Sun, Juntong Xi, Xiaobo Chen and Yaoyang Xiong

The purpose of this paper is to describe a computer‐aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for fabricating facial prostheses.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a computer‐aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for fabricating facial prostheses.

Design/methodology/approach

The CAD/CAM system can be used for fabricating custom‐made facial prostheses with symmetrical or asymmetrical features. This system integrates non‐contact structured light scanning, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping manufacturing technology. Fringe projection based on the combination of the phase‐shift and grey‐code methods is used for data collection. A robust approach is proposed to calculate the mid‐plane of the human face without any knowledge of the centroid position or the principal axis in data processing.

Findings

Results show that the proposed method increases the fabrication accuracy and reduces the operating time. Patients were satisfied with the rehabilitation results as the custom‐made facial prostheses fitted them well.

Practical implications

This study improves the fabrication accuracy of facial prostheses. Three‐dimensional data of the facial surface of a patient needing a facial prosthesis were obtained with almost no harm to his body; after a series of robust processes, a precise and suitable aesthetic facial prosthesis was fabricated.

Originality/value

This system has bright prospects for clinical application because of its advantages over other methods in terms of speed, accuracy, safety, cost, etc.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Sunil Chopra, Scott D. Flamm and Waikar Sachin

A midwest hospital purchases new CT Scanners which are much faster than the existing technology. Processes in the radiology department are optimized to the older, existing…

Abstract

A midwest hospital purchases new CT Scanners which are much faster than the existing technology. Processes in the radiology department are optimized to the older, existing scanners and technicians are unable to take full advantage of the new scanner speed. The hospital finds itself working to change the processes to suit the new scanners capabilities and take full advantage of their speed.

This case allows students to analyze process capacity and time performance in different settings and understand how process structure impacts both operational and financial performance.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

Adam Lindgreen, Michael Antioco, Roger Palmer and Tim van Heesch

During the industrial purchasing process of high‐tech, innovative products, various decision‐influencers within buying companies evaluate the attractiveness of the…

Abstract

Purpose

During the industrial purchasing process of high‐tech, innovative products, various decision‐influencers within buying companies evaluate the attractiveness of the manufacturer's market offering; namely the “value” of the offering. This paper aims to identify the various tangible and intangible value elements requested by the business customer, and the stage(s) of the purchasing process in which these value considerations take place.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a framework that will effectively guide manufacturers of high‐tech, innovative products to market, and customize, their offer throughout the different stages of prospective business customers' purchasing process.

Findings

The findings, derived from in‐depth interviews, demonstrate that manufacturers should focus on distinctive product‐, service‐, and supplier‐related value elements, and that the particular elements depend on the different decision‐influencers, as well as the different stages of the purchasing process.

Originality/value

The paper discusses some avenues for future research in the marketing of high‐tech products.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 24 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Timon Mallepree and Diethard Bergers

The purpose of this paper is to generate facsimiled rapid prototyping (RP) models for medical analysis that demands an answer about the accuracy of medical models.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to generate facsimiled rapid prototyping (RP) models for medical analysis that demands an answer about the accuracy of medical models.

Design/methodology/approach

The RP technology for anatomical biomodeling is the accurate RP procedure of milling and joining, a method that is used to produce high accurate functional prototypes. To fabricate medical prototypes with RP, there is a need to get appropriate data information. Along that process, image data will be taken by computer‐tomography (CT) images as data basis. The key process is to generate a digital three‐dimensional (3D) model that represents the original object as best as possible. To be able to make a statement about the accuracy of such a model the necessary parameters run along a CT scan are of interest.

Findings

A case study using a generated test model is presented in order to show the process accuracy in relation to the chosen scan parameters. The quality of editing CT images for a 3D‐reconstruction as a necessary pre‐process for RP is, to an important degree, based on the used scan parameters.

Originality/value

This paper represents a cutting‐edge analysis that gives answers about the constrictive accuracy that is achievable for medical RP models.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

François Pérès, Farid Taha, Marie‐Antoinette de Lumley and Emmanuel Cabanis

The National Museum of Natural History has been carrying out, over the last several years, a study of hominid fossil skulls, which have been discovered in different…

Abstract

The National Museum of Natural History has been carrying out, over the last several years, a study of hominid fossil skulls, which have been discovered in different regions of the world. The aim of the palaeo‐anthropological study of these skulls is to reconstruct the genealogic tree of the evolution of man and to understand better, the diversity of the homo Erectus species on the different continents. Currently, digital techniques and those of rapid prototyping offer a solution to these problems by allowing the virtual or physical reconstitution of the skulls for scientific study. This paper presents this new perspective for the world of palaeontology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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